Background: Diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs) are main cause of hospitalizations and amputations in diabetic patients. Failure of standard foot care is the most important cause of impaired DFUs healing. Dakin's solution (DS; sodium hypochlorite) is a promising broad spectrum bactericidal antiseptic for DFUs management. Studies investigating the efficacy of using DS solution on DFUs healing process are scarce. Accordingly, this is the first evidence based randomized control trial study conducted to evaluate the effect of using diluted DS compared with the standard care in the management of infected DFUs. Methods: Randomized control trial study was conducted to assess the efficacy of DS in the management of infected DFUs. Patients were randomly distributed to control group (DFUs irrigated with normal saline) and intervention group (DFUs irrigated with 0.1% DS). Patients were followed for at least 24 weeks for healing, reinfection or amputations. In-vitro antimicrobial testing on DS was performed including determination of its minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC), minimum biofilm inhibitory concentration (MBIC), minimum biofilm eradication concentration (MBEC) and suspension test. Results: Replacing normal saline irrigation in DFU standard care with 0.1% DS followed by soaking the ulcer with commercial sodium hypochlorite (0.08 %) after patient discharge significantly improved ulcer healing (p< 0.001) and decreased number of amputations and hospitalizations (p< 0.001). The endpoint of death from any cause (RR 0.13; p = 0.029) and the amputation rate (RR 0.27; p<0.001) were also significantly reduced. The effect on ulcer closure (OR 11.9; p<0.001) was significantly enhanced in comparison to the control group. Moreover, DS irrigation for inpatients, significantly decreased bacterial load (p< 0.001), The in-vitro analysis results of DS were: MIC (1.44%), MBC (2.88%), MBIC (1.08%) and MBEC (2.87%). Conclusions: Compared with standard care, diluted DS (0.1%) was more effective in the management of infected DFUs. DS (0.1%) irrigation with debridement followed by standard care is a promising method in the management of infected DFUs.
The surgical loss of the foot or leg is vigorously resisted by podiatrists who are committed to the conservation of limbs at risk because of peripheral vascular disease. Pathologic changes in blood vessels may, however, progress to a point where no other option is available to the patient. This study assesses amputation of the extremities and investigates tissue alterations that can be identified in diseased blood vessels implicated in these circumstances. Gross pathology and scanning electron microscopy are examined in this, the first of a two-part study.
Successful management of the Charcot foot is one of the most challenging undertakings faced by physicians. However, many times such patients undergo prolonged and attentive care only to develop further deformity, and in many cases succumb to amputation. Research in the past few years has yielded a new understanding of the Charcot process that should serve as the basis for improved therapeutic measures. The authors discuss these more recent developments and how this knowledge may be applied to better serve the patient. In addition, surgical reconstruction of the diabetic Charcot foot is introduced and discussed.
Theories about the nature of cavernous hemangiomas have been reviewed. Most authors believe that such vascular tumors are congenital. The influence of pregnancy on the growth of these tumors was exemplified in a case report, and explanatory mechanisms were offered. Occurrences of cavernous hemangiomas that involve the foot were reported in the literature, ranging from 4.9% to 28.5% of all cases reviewed. X-ray findings of phleboliths and the importance of angiography in planning treatment were emphasized. In the authors' case report, a satisfactory surgical result was obtained in a plantar foot lesion that would otherwise have required amputation.
A case study has been presented where C. jeikeium was isolated as the causative bacterium of an osteomyelitis of the fifth metatarsal. Partial amputation, local wound care, frequent and aggressive debridement, and appropriate antibiotics were all used with apparent success. The lack of complete patient follow-up prohibits the authors from declaring the infection cured; however, all signs of infection were absent immediately prior to discharge. The authors believe this to be the first reported case of Corynebacterium species as the bacterial isolate in confirmed osteomyelitis.
The flexor digitorum accessorius longus muscle was observed during a cadaveric surgery course on the foot and ankle for third-year podiatric medical students. The cadaveric foot had been amputated just proximal to the ankle level so that the muscle origin could not be determined; its insertion, however, was found to be into the flexor digitorum longus tendon, just before the tendon split into its digital slips. This article reviews the literature on the muscle and its clinical implications and describes and shows the muscle as it was seen in this case. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 92(8): 463-466, 2002)
Osteomyelitis often complicates a diabetic neuropathic foot, leading to amputation, decreased function, and quality of life. Therefore, early detection and treatment are paramount. Furthermore, neuroarthropathic (Charcot) changes in the foot often resemble infection and must be differentiated. Currently, the Tc-99m HMPAO Labeled Leukocytes Scan is considered to be the most reliable noninvasive imaging modality of choice in determining Charcot foot changes versus osteomyelitis. The purpose of this article is to alert the clinician that although the Tc-99m HMPAO Labeled Leukocytes Scan may be the second most reliable test next to bone biopsy for determining osteomyelitis, false positives do occur. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 91(7): 365-368, 2001)
Macrodactyly is a deformity that may progress beyond initial surgical resection. Three-dimensional computed tomography imaging may aid in the surgical planning, given the osseous irregularities that may exist. The objective in revisional surgery of this type is to provide the most functional and cosmetic result. In this case, the hallux was saved when the patient previously had requested an amputation. The case also illustrates that when earlier surgery has been performed, the classic approaches to macrodactyly advocated in the literature may not be feasible. The surgeon must then approach the deformity with some flexibility, and three-dimensional imaging may be a useful tool.