Onychomycosis is a chronic nail infection caused by dermatophytes, Candida, nondermatophyte molds, and Trichosporon. The purpose of this study was to identify the underlying pathogen in patients with onychomycosis in our region.
A retrospective analysis of 225 cases with onychomycosis, diagnosed over a 27-month period at the Department of Dermatoveneorology, Bezmialem Vakif University, Istanbul, Turkey, and confirmed with culture, was performed.
Patient age ranged from 2 to 87 years (mean ± SD, 41.59 ± 17.61), and female patients were more commonly affected (120 cases, 53.3%) than male patients. Lateral and distal subungual onychomycosis was detected in 180 cases (80%). Etiologic agents were as follows: Trichophyton rubrum, 77 cases (34.2%); Trichophyton mentagrophytes, 30 cases (13.3%), Candida albicans, 28 cases (12.4%); Candida parapsilosis, 25 cases (11.1%); Acremonium species, one case (0.4%); Aspergillus species, two cases (0.9%); Fusarium species, four cases (1.3%); and Trichosporon species, three cases (1.3%).
The most frequent isolated etiologic agents were T rubrum for toenails and C albicans for fingernails.
Onychomycosis is the most common nail disorder, with a global prevalence of approximately 5.5%. It is difficult to cure on both short-term and long-term bases. The most common treatments include the use of oral or topical antifungals. Recurrent infections are common, and the use of systemic oral antifungals raises concerns of hepatotoxicity and drug-drug interactions, particularly in patients with polypharmacy. A number of device-based treatments have been developed for onychomycosis treatment, to either directly treat fungal infection or act as adjuvants to increase the efficacy of topical and oral agents. These device-based treatments have been increasing in popularity over the past several years, and include photodynamic therapy, iontophoresis, plasma, microwaves, ultrasound, nail drilling, and lasers. Some, such as photodynamic therapy, provide more direct treatment, whereas others, such as ultrasound and nail drilling, aid the uptake of traditional antifungals. We conducted a systematic literature search investigating the efficacy of these device-based treatment methods. From an initial result of 841 studies, 26 were deemed relevant to the use of device-based treatments of onychomycosis. This review examines these methods and provides insight into the state of clinical research for each. Many device-based treatments show promising results, but require more research to assess their true impact on onychomycosis.
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is both sensitive and specific in the diagnosis of osteomyelitis, and it is an important imaging modality in preoperative planning of resection of infected bone. In many cases, however, the extent of osseous infection is evident on plain radiographs, and little additional information is gained from the MRI. The goal of this study was to assess the accuracy of radiographs against MRIs in assessing the spread of suspected osteomyelitis from one phalanx to another or to a metatarsal.
A medical record review was performed, and 14 patients with 16 toes confirmed to have osteomyelitis involving one or more phalanges were included in the study. An investigator blinded to the MRI findings interpreted the extent of osseous involvement based solely on the radiographic and clinical presentation. The accuracy of the radiographic interpretation was then calculated against the MRI findings.
In 14 of the 16 toes (87.5%), whether osteomyelitis had spread from one bone to another was determined based on the radiographic and clinical presentation. In one toe, the radiograph did not adequately depict osteomyelitis in adjacent infected bone. In one more toe, the radiograph depicted features of osteomyelitis in uninfected bone.
In a large percentage of patients, the phalanges affected by osteomyelitis had visible findings on the radiograph, and operative planning could have been based on the radiograph alone.
We sought to assess, in a case-control model, the potential efficacy of maggot debridement therapy in 60 nonambulatory patients (mean ± SD age, 72.2 ± 6.8 years) with neuroischemic diabetic foot wounds (University of Texas grade C or D wounds below the malleoli) and peripheral vascular disease. Twenty-seven of these patients (45%) healed during 6 months of review. There was no significant difference in the proportion of patients healing in the maggot debridement therapy versus control group (57% versus 33%). Of patients who healed, time to healing was significantly shorter in the maggot therapy than in the control group (18.5 ± 4.8 versus 22.4 ± 4.4 weeks). Approximately one in five patients (22%) underwent a high-level (above-the-foot) amputation. Patients in the control group were three times as likely to undergo amputation (33% versus 10%). Although there was no significant difference in infection prevalence in patients undergoing maggot therapy versus controls (80% versus 60%), there were significantly more antibiotic-free days during follow-up in patients who received maggot therapy (126.8 ± 30.3 versus 81.9 ± 42.1 days). Maggot debridement therapy reduces short-term morbidity in nonambulatory patients with diabetic foot wounds. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 95(3): 254–257, 2005)
A 42-year-old woman presented to the emergency department with progressive painful discoloration of the digits of her right foot and symptoms previously diagnosed as neuroma. She was admitted to the hospital for dorsalis pedis arterial occlusion and ischemic foot pain. Despite attempts to restore perfusion to the right leg, ischemia of the right foot persisted and progressed to digital gangrene. The patient subsequently required right transmetatarsal amputation and eventually below-the-knee amputation. After extensive inpatient vascular and hematologic work-up of this otherwise healthy woman, test results revealed that she had protein S deficiency, hepatitis C, and human immunodeficiency virus type 1. In addition to describing this patient’s evaluation and treatment, we review protein S deficiency, including its correlation with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection and laboratory diagnosis. This case promotes awareness of protein S deficiency and serves as a reminder to the physician treating patients with vascular compromise and a history of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 to include protein S deficiency in the differential diagnosis. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 97(2): 151–155, 2007)
In contrast to the narrow indications for living skin equivalents, extracellular matrix biomaterials are clinically used in a wide range of wound-healing applications. Given the breadth of possible uses, the goal of this study was to retrospectively compile and analyze the clinical application and effectiveness of an extracellular matrix biomaterial derived from fetal bovine dermis (PriMatrix; TEI Biosciences, Boston, Massachusetts) in patients treated by a single physician and monitored postsurgically in an outpatient wound care center.
A retrospective medical record review was conducted of consecutive patients treated from January 2007 through January 2009 with meshed PriMatrix after sharp/surgical debridement and coverage with standard moist wound therapy dressings.
Twenty-nine patients and 34 wounds were compiled. All of the wounds were unresponsive to conservative treatment owing to complications, including infection, exposed bone or tendon, and other comorbidities known to delay healing. Wounds included 11 diabetic ulcers, 8 venous stasis ulcers, 10 nonhealing traumatic wounds, and 5 other chronic wounds. Thirty of 34 wounds healed, with four patients lost to follow-up. Mean time to healing for diabetic foot ulcers was 105 days with an average of 2.6 PriMatrix applications. Mean time to healing for venous, traumatic, and other chronic wounds was 74 to 82 days with an average of 1.2 to 1.4 PriMatrix applications.
In patients with comorbidities known to delay healing, the implantation of PriMatrix promoted the healing and, ultimately, full reepithelialization of otherwise unresponsive wounds of varied etiology, including those with complications of infection or exposed bone or tendon. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 102(3): 223–232, 2012)
Intralesional epidermal growth factor (EGF) has been available as a medication in Turkey since 2012. We present the results of our experience using intralesional EGF in Turkey for patients with diabetic foot wounds.
A total of 174 patients from 25 Turkish medical centers were evaluated for this retrospective study. We recorded the data on enrolled individuals on custom-designed patient follow-up forms. Patients received intralesional injections of 75 μg of EGF three times per week and were monitored daily for adverse reactions to treatment. Patients were followed up for varying periods after termination of EGF treatments.
Median treatment duration was 4 weeks, and median frequency of EGF administration was 12 doses. Complete response (granulation tissue >75% or wound closure) was observed in 116 patients (66.7%). Wounds closed with only EGF administration in 81 patients (46.6%) and in conjunction with various surgical interventions after EGF administration in 65 patients (37.3%). Overall, 146 of the wounds (83.9%) were closed at the end of therapy. Five patients (2.9%) required major amputation. Adverse effects were reported in 97 patients (55.7%).
In patients with diabetic foot ulcer who received standard care, additional intralesional EGF application after infection control provided high healing rates with low amputation rates.
Charcot’s neuroarthropathy is a relatively common disease in patients with diabetic neuropathy. If unrecognized or left untreated, Charcot’s neuroarthropathy can result in a severely misshapen and unstable foot and ankle. Ulceration, soft-tissue infection, and osteomyelitis frequently ensue, and partial or complete amputation of the foot is not uncommon. A high index of suspicion and proper interpretation of clinical and diagnostic findings are essential to establish a timely and accurate diagnosis and to institute appropriate treatment. The pathogenesis of neuroarthropathy is reviewed and diagnosis and treatment of the stage 0 diabetic Charcot foot are presented. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 92(4): 210-220, 2002)
The comorbidities of diabetes mellitus were evaluated in an Asian American population with podiatric symptoms living in southern California. The three most common nonpedal complaints in men were blurred vision (73.6%), hypertension (64.1%), and erectile dysfunction (52.3%) and in women were blurred vision (84.5%), incontinence (71.5%), and low-back pain with radiculopathy-like symptoms (56.5%). The most significant finding was that only 3.2% of all patients had any previous knowledge or understanding of the risks of foot infection, ulceration, and amputation secondary to diabetes mellitus. The prevalence of diabetes mellitus in ethnic populations once considered practically exempt continues to rise steadily, and Asians living in the United States are becoming casualties of diabetes mellitus and its complications. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 93(1): 37-41, 2003)
From January 1995 to December 2000, 87 patients at a single medical center underwent triple arthrodesis using external rings and arched-wire compression as the method of fixation. A retrospective evaluation was conducted to assess the clinical results of this technique. Eighty-four patients (97%) achieved clinical and radiographic fusion in 6 to 8 weeks. All of the patients were partially weightbearing during the first postoperative week. Thirty-one patients (36%) developed a superficial infection at one or more wire insertion sites, and nine (10%) experienced dehiscence of an incision. Three patients (3%) developed an asymptomatic nonunion. This article describes the use of external ring fixation with arched-wire compression for triple arthrodesis and presents the findings from 87 patients who underwent this technique. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 94(1): 12-21, 2004)