Integra bilayer wound matrix (IBWM) is a bilayer skin replacement system composed of a dermal regeneration layer and a temporary epidermal layer. It is used to treat various types of deep, large wounds via an inpatient procedure in an operating room. We sought to determine ease of use and effectiveness of IBWM in an outpatient clinical setting when treating diabetic foot ulcers. In addition, no epidermal autografting was performed in conjunction with the IBWM after silicone release, as is common in the inpatient setting.
This 12-week, single-arm, prospective pilot study was conducted in three outpatient clinics. Weekly evaluations included monitoring the wound for signs of infection during the 12-week follow-up phase.
Eleven patients with diabetic foot ulcers who met the inclusion and exclusion criteria were enrolled. One patient was discontinued from the study owing to noncompliance leading to a serious adverse event. Therefore, ten patients who received the study intervention were included in the per-protocol population reported herein. The mean patient age was 60.6 years, with an average 11-year history of diabetes mellitus. Each ulcer was located on the plantar aspect of the foot. No infection was reported during the study. Patients treated with IBWM showed progressive wound healing over time: the greatest mean wound reduction was approximately 95% in week 12. Seven of ten patients (70%) achieved complete wound closure by week 12. No recurrent ulcers were reported during follow-up.
These results are consistent with the hypothesis that IBWM is easy to use, safe, and effective when used on diabetic foot ulcers in an outpatient clinical setting without the secondary procedure of autografting for closure. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 103(4): 274–280, 2013)
Toe amputation is the most common partial foot amputation. Controversy exists regarding whether to primarily close toe amputations or to leave them open for secondary healing. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the results of closed toe amputations in diabetic patients, with respect to wound healing, complications, and the need for further higher level amputation.
We retrospectively reviewed the results of 40 elective or semi-elective toe amputations with primary closure performed in 35 patients treated in a specialized diabetic foot unit. Patients with abscesses or necrotizing fasciitis were treated emergently and were excluded. Patients in whom clean margins could not be achieved due to extensive cellulitis or tenosynovitis and patients requiring vascular intervention were excluded as well. Outcome endpoints included wound healing at 3 weeks, delayed wound healing, or subsequent higher level amputation.
Out of 40 amputations, 38 healed well. Thirty amputations healed by the time of stitch removal at 3 weeks and eight had delayed healing. In two patients the wounds did not heal and subsequent higher level amputation was eventually required.
In carefully selected diabetic foot patients, primary closure of toe amputations is a safe surgical option. We do not recommend primary closure when infection control is not achieved or in patients requiring vascular reconstruction. Careful patient selection, skillful assessment of debridement margins and meticulous technique are required and may be offered by experienced designated surgeons in a specialized diabetic foot unit.
Patients suffering from chronic kidney disease are at greater risk of perioperative and postoperative complications. There is no systematic review study demonstrating whether total joint arthroplasty can be safely performed in patients with chronic kidney disease.
A literature search was performed in the PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang, and Cochrane Library databases for information from the earliest date of data collection to September of 2018. Studies comparing the perioperative and postoperative outcomes of no–chronic kidney dysfunction (CKD) patients with those of CKD patients were included. Statistical heterogeneity was quantitatively evaluated by means of the χ2 test, with significance set at P < .10 or I 2 > 50%.
Three articles consisting of 38,209 patients were included (35,363 no-CKD patients and 2,846 CKD patients). The results showed that CKD was related to a greater increase in postoperative infection rate, deep vein thrombosis, readmission, and mortality (P < .1). No differences in length of surgery, length of stay, pulmonary embolism, or revision were observed (P > .10).
Compared with no-CKD patients, CKD patients demonstrated an increased risk of perioperative and postoperative complications.
Diabetic foot infections tend to lead to amputation. Partial first-ray resections are used to help salvage the foot and maintain bipedal ambulation. Losing the first metatarsophalangeal joint has biomechanical consequences that lead to further foot deformities and result in more proximal amputations of the ipsilateral limb, such as a transmetatarsal amputation.
We reviewed 48 patients (32 male and 16 female; mean age = 62.44) who underwent 50 partial first-ray resections between April 1, 2003, and July 31, 2009. These partial first-ray resections were done at various levels of the first metatarsal. We hypothesize that partial first-ray resections that require further bone resection will lead to poor biomechanics that can result in further amputation.
We found that out of 50 partial first-ray resections, 24 cases required further surgical intervention, 12 of which were a transmetatarsal amputation (TMA) (mean time between partial first-ray resection and TMA = 282.08 days). Forty-eight percent of patients did not require further surgical intervention and were considered a success.
Partial first-ray resections are not highly successful. Our study found a higher success rate compared to a previous study done by Cohen et al in 1991. Partial first-ray amputations can be a good initial procedure to salvage the foot and prolong a patient’s bipedal ambulatory status, thereby lowering the patient’s morbidity and mortality. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 102(5): 412–416, 2012)
One of the more frequent pathologic conditions that podiatric physicians are confronted with is plantar verrucae. Plantar verrucae have been studied extensively in terms of morphological features and incidence in the population at large and in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection. Solitary angiokeratomas can be morphologically similar to plantar verrucae, presenting as hyperkeratotic pedunculated lesions. We present a unique case study of a 40-year-old man with human immunodeficiency virus with a painful solitary angiokeratoma masquerading as plantar verrucae. The lesion demonstrated clinical signs consistent with those highlighted in the literature for verrucae, namely, showing as red and black lacunae, punctuated hyperkeratotic epidermis. We propose that solitary angiokeratomas should be an important part of a podiatric physician’s differential diagnosis in the lower extremity owing to the similarity of morphological features with plantar verrucae. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 100(6): 502–504, 2010)
There is an increased prevalence of foot ulceration in patients with diabetes, leading to hospitalization. Early wound closure is necessary to prevent further infections and, ultimately, lower-limb amputations. There is no current evidence stating that an elevated preoperative hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) level is a contraindication to skin grafting. The purpose of this review was to determine whether elevated HbA1c levels are a contraindication to the application of skin grafts in diabetic patients.
A retrospective review was performed of 53 consecutive patients who underwent split-thickness skin graft application to the lower extremity between January 1, 2012, and December 31, 2015. A uniform surgical technique was used across all of the patients. A comparison of HbA1c levels between failed and healed skin grafts was reviewed.
Of 43 surgical sites (41 patients) that met the inclusion criteria, 27 healed with greater than 90% graft take and 16 had a skin graft that failed. There was no statistically significant difference in HbA1c levels in the group that healed a skin graft compared with the group in which skin graft failed to adhere.
Preliminary data suggest that an elevated HbA1c level is not a contraindication to application of a skin graft. The benefits of early wound closure outweigh the risks of skin graft application in patients with diabetes.
Ciclopirox 8% Nail Lacquer Topical Solution for the Treatment of Onychomycosis in Patients with Diabetes
A Multicenter, Open-Label Study
Background: An open-label, noncomparative study was conducted to assess the safety and efficacy of ciclopirox 8% nail lacquer topical solution in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Methods: Forty-nine diabetic patients with distal subungual onychomycosis were treated once daily for 48 weeks with ciclopirox 8% nail lacquer, a topical nail solution approved for the treatment of patients with mild-to-moderate onychomycosis.
Results: Treatment resulted in clinical improvement in 63.4% of patients. Most patients (85.7%) had a mycologic outcome of improvement or cure, with 54.3% attaining mycologic cure. Consideration of mycologic and clinical outcomes generated a treatment outcome of improvement, success, or cure in 84.4% of patients. Moreover, patients experienced improvement in the diseased area of the nail (63.4%), nail surface (56.1%), nail color (48.8%), and nail thickness (65.9%). Ciclopirox 8% nail lacquer was safe, with treatment-related adverse events limited to infection in one patient, which resolved in 15 days; the patient completed the study. No treatment-related serious adverse events were observed.
Conclusion: Ciclopirox 8% nail lacquer is a safe and effective treatment for distal subungual onychomycosis in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus receiving insulin or oral hypoglycemic therapy. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 97(3): 195–202, 2007)
Although an increased prevalence of plantar verrucae has been associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, human papillomavirus (HPV) typing studies have not been published about this patient population. We sought to determine the prevalence of HPV types in plantar verrucae of HIV-positive (HIV+) and HIV-negative (HIV–) individuals.
Thirty-nine plantar verruca lesions in 17 individuals were examined. Nine participants were HIV+ and eight were HIV–. Detection of HPV was performed by polymerase chain reaction using two sets of primers: MY09/MY11. The type of HPV was determined by hybridization to 38 different HPV types. Clinical types of verrucae were correlated to the HPV strain identified in each lesion.
Of the 39 plantar verruca samples, 38 typed to HPV-2, HPV-27, and HPV-57 strains in HIV+ and HIV– individuals. Specifically, a large proportion of the samples from HIV– individuals typed as HPV-27 (87.5%), and HPV-2 was the predominant type identified in HIV+ individuals (50%). No rare or atypical HPV types were found in either group. We identified HPV-2 and HPV-27 in 96% of verruca plantaris clinical type. Mosaic warts typed to HPV-27 and HPV-57, and 80% of punctate verrucae typed to HPV-57.
This study presents an increased prevalence of HPV-2, HPV-27, and HPV-57 in plantar verrucae in this study population and provides insight into the occurrence of these types in HIV+ and HIV– individuals.
Malignant melanoma with osteocartilaginous differentiation is extremely rare. We report a case of periungual osteocartilaginous melanoma (OCM) on the right hallux. A 59-year-old man presented with a rapidly growing mass with drainage on his right great toe after treatment of ingrown toenail and infection 3 months earlier. Physical examination showed a 2.0×1.5×1.0-cm, malodorous, erythematous, dusky, granuloma-like mass along the fibular border of the right hallux. Pathologic evaluation of the excisional biopsy revealed diffuse epithelioid and chondroblastoma-like melanocytes with atypia and pleomorphism in the dermis with strong SOX10 immunostaining. The lesion was diagnosed as osteocartilaginous melanoma. The patient was referred to a surgical oncologist for further treatment. Osteocartilaginous melanoma is a rare variant of malignant melanoma that needs to be differentiated from chondroblastoma and other lesions. Immunostains for SOX10, H3K36M, and SATB2 are helpful for the differential diagnosis.
Despite advancements in the treatment of diabetic patients with “at-risk” limbs, minor and major amputations remain commonplace. The diabetic population is especially prone to surgical complications from lower extremity amputation because of comorbidities such as renal disease, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, microvascular and macrovascular disease, and peripheral neuropathy. Complication occurrence may result in increases in hospital stay duration, unplanned readmission rate, mortality rate, number of operations, and incidence of infection. Skin flap necrosis and wound healing delay secondary to inadequate perfusion of soft tissues continues to result in significant morbidity, mortality, and cost to individuals and the health-care system. Intraoperative indocyanine green fluorescent angiography for the assessment of tissue perfusion may be used to assess tissue perfusion in this patient population to minimize complications associated with amputations. This technology provides real-time functional assessment of the macrovascular and microvascular systems in addition to arterial and venous flow to and from the flap soft tissues. This case study explores the use of indocyanine green fluorescent angiography for the treatment of a diabetic patient with a large dorsal and plantar soft-tissue deficit and need for transmetatarsal amputation with nontraditional rotational flap coverage. The authors theorize that the use of indocyanine green may decrease postoperative complications and cost to the health-care system through fewer readmissions and fewer procedures.