The utility of wound debridement has expanded to include the management of all chronic wounds, even in the absence of infection and gross necrosis. Biofilms, metalloproteases on the wound base, and senescent cells at the wound edge irreversibly change the physiologic features of wound healing and contribute to a pathologic, chronic inflammatory environment. The objective of this review is to provide surgeons with a basic understanding of the processes of debridement in the noninfected wound. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 100(5): 353–359, 2010)
This literature review sought to evaluate the current state of knowledge and guidelines surrounding the role of pH in the recovery of chronic nonhealing wounds. A systematic review of PubMed examining the relationship between pH and wound healing was completed. Seven sources were retrieved for review. The development of a highly structured and reproducible system of pH-driven therapy may add to the treatment algorithm for chronic nonhealing wounds.
We sought to identify the biomechanical characteristics of the feet of patients with diabetes mellitus and the interrelationship with diabetic neuropathy by determining the range of joint mobility and the presence and locations of calluses and foot deformities.
This observational comparative study involved 281 patients with diabetes mellitus who underwent neurologic and vascular examinations. Joint mobility studies were performed, and deformities and hyperkeratosis locations were assessed.
No substantial differences were found between patients with and without neuropathy in joint mobility range. Neuropathy was seen as a risk factor only in the passive range of motion of the first metatarsophalangeal joint (mean ± SD: 57.2° ± 19.5° versus 50.3° ± 22.5°, P = .008). Mean ± SD ankle joint mobility values were similar in both groups (83.0° ± 5.2° versus 82.8° ± 9.3°, P = .826). Patients without neuropathy had a higher rate of foot deformities such as hallux abductus valgus and hammer toes. There was also a higher presence of calluses in patients without neuropathy (82.8% versus 72.6%; P = .039).
Diabetic neuropathy was not related to limited joint mobility and the presence of calluses. Patients with neuropathy did not show a higher risk of any of the deformities examined. These findings suggest that the etiology of biomechanical alterations in diabetic people is complex and may involve several anatomically and pathologically predisposing factors. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 101(3): 208–214, 2011)
Diabetic foot care management is directed at patients with a history of complications, especially those with rising levels of hemoglobin A1c, and those who have had diabetes for several years. The aim of this study was to cross-culturally adapt a French-language version of the Diabetic Foot Self-care Questionnaire of the University of Malaga (DFSQ-UMA) for use in France.
Cross-cultural adaptation was performed according to relevant international guidelines (International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research), and the factor structure was determined. Internal consistency was measured using the Cronbach α. Item-total and inter-item correlations were assessed.
The French data set comprised 146 patients. The mean ± SD patient age was 62.60 ± 15.47 years. There were 47 women and 99 men. The structure matrix (with three factors) was tested by confirmatory factor analysis. The 16-item questionnaire had a Cronbach α of 0.92. The mean value for inter-item correlations was 0.48 (range, 0.17–0.86). The rotated solution revealed a three-factor structure that accounted for 48.10% of the variance observed. A significant inverse correlation was observed between questionnaire scores and hemoglobin A1c levels (r = –0.17; P < .01).
This study validates the French-language version of the DFSQ-UMA, which can be used as a self-reported outcome measure for French-speaking patients in France.
The aim of this study was to evaluate whether high plantar foot pressures can be predicted from measurements of plantar soft-tissue thickness in the forefoot of diabetic patients with neuropathy. A total of 157 diabetic patients with neuropathy and at least one palpable foot pulse but without a history of foot ulceration were invited to participate in the study. Plantar tissue thickness was measured bilaterally at each metatarsal head, with patients standing on the same standardized platform. Plantar pressures were measured during barefoot walking using the optical pedobarograph. Receiver operating characteristic analysis was used to determine the plantar tissue thickness predictive of elevated peak plantar pressure. Tissue thickness cutoff values of 11.05, 7.85, 6.65, 6.55, and 5.05 mm for metatarsal heads 1 through 5, respectively, predict plantar pressure at each respective site greater than 700 kPa, with sensitivity between 73% and 97% and specificity between 52% and 84%. When tissue thickness was used to predict pressure greater than 1,000 kPa, similar results were observed, indicating that high pressure at different levels could be predicted from similar tissue thickness cutoff values. The results of the study indicate that high plantar pressure can be predicted from plantar tissue thickness with high sensitivity and specificity. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 94(1): 39-42, 2004)
We aimed to evaluate surrogate markers commonly used in the literature for diabetic foot osteomyelitis remission after initial treatment for diabetic foot infections (DFIs).
Thirty-five patients with DFIs were prospectively enrolled and followed for 12 months. Osteomyelitis was determined from bone culture and histologic analysis initially and for recurrence. Fisher exact and χ2 tests were used for dichotomous variables and Student t and Mann-Whitney U tests for continuous variables (α = .05).
Twenty-four patients were diagnosed as having osteomyelitis and 11 as having soft-tissue infections. Four patients (16.7%) with osteomyelitis had reinfection based on bone biopsy. The success of osteomyelitis treatment varied based on the surrogate marker used to define remission: osteomyelitis infection (16.7%), failed wound healing (8.3%), reulceration (20.8%), readmission (16.7%), amputation (12.5%). There was no difference in outcomes among patients who were initially diagnosed as having osteomyelitis versus soft-tissue infections. There were no differences in osteomyelitis reinfection (16.7% versus 45.5%; P = .07), wounds that failed to heal (8.3% versus 9.1%; P = .94), reulceration (20.8% versus 27.3%; P = .67), readmission for DFIs at the same site (16.7% versus 36.4%; P = .20), amputation at the same site after discharge (12.5% versus 36.4%; P = .10). Osteomyelitis at the index site based on bone biopsy indicated that failed therapy was 16.7%. Indirect markers demonstrated a failure rate of 8.3% to 20.8%.
Most osteomyelitis markers were similar to markers in soft-tissue infection. Commonly reported surrogate markers were not shown to be specific to identify patients who failed osteomyelitis treatment compared with patients with soft-tissue infections. Given this, these surrogate markers are not reliable for use in practice to identify osteomyelitis treatment failure.
The aim of this study was to observe the pressure changes in the felt padding used to off-load pressure from the first metatarsal head, the effects obtained by different designs, and the loss of effectiveness over time.
With a study population of 17 persons, two types of 5-mm semicompressed felt padding were tested: one was C-shaped, with an aperture cutout at the first metatarsophalangeal joint, and the other was U-shaped. Pressures on the sole of the foot were evaluated with a platform pressure measurement system at three time points: before fitting the felt padding, immediately afterward, and 3 days later.
In terms of decreased mean pressure on the first metatarsal, significant differences were obtained in all of the participants (P < .001). For plantar pressures on the central metatarsals, the differences between all states and time points were significant for the C-shaped padding in both feet (P < .001), but with the U-shaped padding the only significant differences were between no padding and padding and at day 3 (P = .01 and P = .02).
In healthy individuals, the U-shaped design, with a padding thickness of 5 mm, achieved a more effective and longer-lasting reduction in plantar pressure than the C-shaped design.
Background: Diabetic foot infections (DFIs) can lead to limb loss and mortality. To improve patient care at a safety-net teaching hospital, we created a multidisciplinary limb salvage service (LSS).
Methods: We recruited a cohort prospectively and compared it to a historical control group. Adults admitted to the newly established LSS for DFI during a 6-month period from 2016 to 2017 were included prospectively. Patients admitted to the LSS had routine endocrine and infectious diseases consultations according to a standardized protocol. A retrospective analysis of patients admitted to the acute care surgical service for DFI before creation of the LSS during an 8-month period from 2014 to 2015 was performed.
Results: A total of 250 patients were divided into two groups: the pre-LSS (n = 92) and the LSS (n = 158) groups. There were no significant differences in baseline characteristics. Although all patients were ultimately diagnosed with diabetes, more patients in the LSS group had hypertension (71% versus 56%; P = .01) and a prior diagnosis of diabetes mellitus (92% versus 63%; P < .001) compared to the pre-LSS group. Significantly, with the LSS, fewer patients underwent a below-the-knee amputation (3.6% versus 13%; P = .001). There was no difference in the length of hospital stay or 30-day readmission rate between the groups. Further broken down into Hispanic versus non-Hispanic, we noted that Hispanics had significantly lower rates of below-the-knee amputations (3.6% versus 13.0%; P = .02) in the LSS cohort.
Conclusions: The initiation of a multidisciplinary LSS decreased the below-the-knee amputation rate in patients with DFIs. Length of stay was not increased, nor was the 30-day readmission rate affected. These results suggest that a robust multidisciplinary LSS dedicated to the management of DFIs is both feasible and effective, even in safety-net hospitals.
Background: Ultraviolet (UV)-A therapy is a simple, inexpensive, and effective modality for wound healing, with tremendous potential to improve healing and reduce clinical infections in a number of clinical settings. To date, application of UV-A relies on bulky and hard-to-dose lamps that provide inconsistent therapy, thus making it difficult to apply therapy that is appropriate for the patient.
Methods: This study was designed to test the effectiveness of a novel wound therapy device that combines UV-A with traditional negative-pressure wound therapy (NPWT) to promote wound healing. Furthermore, we tested the ability of fiberoptic UV-A delivery to inhibit bacterial proliferation. Finally, we assayed the level of DNA damage that results from UV-A as compared to established UV-C therapies. Wound healing studies were performed in a porcine model using an articulated therapy arm that allows for continued therapy administration over an extended time course. Negative-pressure wound therapy was administered alone or with UV-A fiberoptic therapy for 2 weeks. Dressings were changed twice a week, at which time wound area was assessed.
Results: Data demonstrate that UV-A with NPWT treatment of wounds results in greater healing than NPWT alone. Using the same therapy device, we demonstrate that exposure of Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa to fiberoptic UV-A results in decreased colony area and number of both bacterial strains. Finally, we show that UV-A induces minimal DNA damage in human fibroblasts and no more DNA damage in wound tissue as compare to intact skin.
Conclusions: These data demonstrate that UV-A can decrease bacterial proliferation and promote wound healing when coupled with NPWT.