Fluoroquinolones have been associated with tendinopathies. The authors present three cases of Achilles tendinopathy in which the patients’ symptoms were preceded by treatment for unrelated bacterial infections with ciprofloxacin. Although the exact mechanism of the relationship is not understood, those who engage in sports or exercise should be advised of the risk of quinolone-induced tendinopathy. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 93(4): 333-335, 2003)
The authors discuss surgical versus conservative management of closed Achilles tendon ruptures. They favor a conservative approach in most cases and present arguments to support this preference. They present a protocol for conservative management of closed Achilles tendon ruptures, which has been developed at the Center for Sports Medicine, Saint Francis Memorial Hospital, San Francisco.
Rupture of the Achilles tendon is a significant injury. The management of this problem can be greatly complicated if there is a time delay between the injury and the patient seeking professional care. The author presents such a case and looks at the various philosophies relative to therapy.
Stiff equinocavus foot deformities are challenging clinical entities that may be treated with osteotomies and extensive soft-tissue release. The most common causes of such lesions are neglected trauma and Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease; other causes include burns, neurologic diseases, and compartment leg syndrome. Conventional treatments, including extensive soft-tissue release, osteotomies, and arthrodesis combined with or without internal splinting, may result in severe complications such as neurovascular or soft-tissue damage and shortening of the foot. The Ilizarov technique may be superior to the traditional approach, because it allows surgeons to apply gradual and titrated correction of individual components of complex deformities and results in minimal surgical morbidity without shortening of the foot. This is the first case report in the literature describing the simultaneous use of Cole osteotomy, combined with external Ilizarov hinged frame fixation, soft-tissue release, and Achilles tendon lengthening for the treatment of an extreme neglected stiff equinocavus foot deformity.
Current surgical treatments for Achilles tendon rupture are thoroughly discussed. New repair techniques, such as the use of soft-tissue anchors, are reviewed, as is the use of synthetic mesh to augment the surgical repair. A classification system devised by the author is presented to make it easier to select the appropriate surgical procedure or combination of procedures in delayed rupture repair. Postoperative physical therapy is paramount in the return to preinjury level of activity for these patients.
Background: Flat feet change lower extremity alignment, and it may change the load distribution on Achilles tendon during exercise. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the immediate effect of cumulative transverse strain via resistive ankle plantarflexion exercise on the Achilles tendon in individuals with flat feet.
Methods: Fourteen individuals with flat feet and 14 age-matched individuals with normal foot posture were enrolled in the present study. Achilles tendon thickness was measured by an ultrasonography device with a linear probe at 3 points: 1 cm (AT-1), 2 cm (AT-2), and 3 cm (AT-3) proximal to the superior aspect of the calcaneus. Ultrasonography measurements were performed before and after participants completed 90 repetitions of double-leg calf raise exercises which included moving the foot from full ankle dorsiflexion to full ankle plantarflexion.
Results: Achilles tendon thickness at all points measured was thinner in the flat feet group at both pre- and post-exercise conditions compared with that of the control group (p<0.05). Achilles tendon thickness at AT-1, AT-2, and AT-3 decreased after the exercise in both groups (p<0.001). The differences in Achilles tendon thickness at all points measured between pre- and post-exercise conditions were lower in individuals with flat feet than those of the control group (p<0.05).
Conclusion: There was a significant decrease in Achilles tendon thickness after exercise in both groups; however, the tendon thickness markedly diminished in individuals with normal foot posture. The results are thought to result from changes in tendon structure and in load distribution on the Achilles tendon.
Background: Many authors have highlighted the role of muscle strength imbalance around the ankle in the development of recurrent clubfoot following Ponseti treatment. Nevertheless, this possible underlying mechanism behind recurrences has not been investigated sufficiently to date. This study aimed to explore whether there is a relationship between Achilles tendon elongation and recurrent metatarsus adductus deformity in children with unilateral clubfeet treated by Ponseti method. Methods: A retrospective chart review was performed on 20 children (14 boys, 6 girls; mean age: 7 years; age range: 5-9) with a recurrent metatarsus adductus deformity treated by the Ponseti method for unilateral idiopathic clubfoot. At the final follow-up, isometric muscle strength was measured using a portable, hand-held dynamometer in reciprocal muscle groups of the ankle. The length of the tendons around the ankle was ultrasonographically measured. Results: The plantar flexion/dorsiflexion ratio was lower on the involved side (p = 0.001). No significant differences in the strength ratio of inversion/eversion were found (p = 0.4). No difference was observed in lengths of tibialis anterior and posterior tendon (p = 0,1), but Achilles tendon was longer on the involved side (p = 0.001; p < 0.01). A significant negative correlation was discovered between involved/uninvolved Achilles tendon length ratios and involved/uninvolved plantar flexion strength ratios (r = −0.524; p = 0.02) Conclusions: Achilles tendon elongation may be a contributor to the muscle imbalance in clubfeet with the relapsed forefoot adduction treated by the Ponseti technique.
The effects of muscular activity on the distribution of forces under the foot, as well as within the foot, are of great importance for determining the mechanisms of foot pathologies. Limited data exist concerning muscle forces during the gait cycle and the effects of muscle forces conveyed to the ground-reactive forces of the foot. The authors developed a cadaveric loading system to determine the effects of force applied to the Achilles tendon on the forefoot-to-rearfoot loading relationship in eight cadaveric specimens. The study indicated that, during axial loading of the tibia, force was inherently transferred from the rearfoot to the forefoot. However, the observed forefoot-to-rearfoot loading relationship did not match the predicted loading relationship from a rigid-body diagram, as would be observed in a class I lever. The results indicated that, as the force was increased on the Achilles tendon, the change in loads on the forefoot and rearfoot was not linear. Specimens with calcaneal inclination angles greater than 20 degrees demonstrated a more linear increase as compared with those with inclination angles less than 20 degrees.