Triamcinolone acetonide is a synthetic glucocorticoid used to treat numerous acute and chronic inflammatory conditions. The various side effects of this drug from parenteral administration are well documented in the literature. In this study, three patients present with a rare side effect of violaceous dermal pigmentation. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this finding is rarely presented in the current literature. The purpose of this study is to provide awareness of a less-documented, delayed side effect from triamcinolone acetonide administration. Although all patients presenting in this study had a known history of autoimmune disease (eg, lupus, psoriatic arthritis) further research is needed to suggest a possible association between dermal violaceous change and the use of triamcinolone.
One of the most common causes of heel pain is plantar fasciitis; however, there are other pathologic disorders that can mimic the symptoms and clinical presentation of this disorder. The purpose of this study was to retrospectively review the prevalence of various pathologic disorders on ultrasound in patients with proximal plantar heel pain.
The medical records and diagnostic ultrasound reports of patients presenting with plantar heel pain between March 1, 2006, and March 31, 2007, were reviewed retrospectively, and the prevalence of various etiologies was collected. The inclusion criteria were based on their clinical presentation of plantar fasciitis or previous diagnosis of plantar fasciitis from an unknown source. Ultrasound evaluation was then performed to confirm the clinical diagnosis.
We examined 175 feet of 143 patients (62 males and 81 females; age range, 16–79 years). Plantar fibromas were present in 90 feet (51%). Plantar fasciitis was diagnosed in 128 feet (73%). Coexistent plantar fibroma and plantar fascial thickening was found in 63 feet (36%). Of the 47 feet that were negative for plantar fasciitis on ultrasound, 27 (57%) revealed the presence of plantar fibroma.
Diagnostic ultrasound can effectively and safely identify the prevalence of various etiologies of heel pain. The high prevalence of plantar fibromas and plantar fascial tears cannot be determined by clinical examination alone, and, therefore, ultrasound evaluation should be performed for confirmation of diagnosis.
Extracorporeal Shockwave Therapy in Patients with Morton's Neuroma
A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial
Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of extracorporeal shockwave therapy (ESWT) for the treatment of Morton's neuroma by measuring changes in patient pain, function, and neuroma size.
Methods: Patients with Morton's neuroma were randomly assigned to either the ESWT group or the sham stimulation group. Outcome measures, including visual analog scale (VAS) and American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society lesser toes (AOFAS) scores, were assessed at baseline and 1 and 4 weeks after treatment. The Johnson satisfaction test was also performed 1 and 4 weeks after treatment. The neuroma diameter was measured using ultrasonography at baseline and 4 weeks after treatment.
Results: Patients receiving ESWT exhibited significantly decreased VAS scores 1 and 4 weeks after treatment relative to baseline, and AOFAS scores were significantly improved 4 weeks after treatment relative to baseline. In the sham stimulation group, VAS and AOFAS scores showed no significant changes at any time after treatment. Neither group showed significant changes in Johnson satisfaction test results or neuroma diameter.
Conclusions: These results suggest that ESWT may reduce pain in patients with Morton's neuroma.
Background: Lesser metatarsal overload may lead to pathologic conditions ranging from plantar metatarsophalangeal joint pain to dislocation. The flexor tendon sheath lies directly plantar to the joint. The increased pressure associated with lesser metatarsal overload may lead to synovitis and pain of the flexor tendon sheath.
Methods: Fifteen consecutive patients with lesser metatarsal overload had visual analog scale scores determined at three metatarsophalangeal joint areas to determine the source of pain. The patients underwent seven maneuvers to determine the pain scale score: single-leg heel raise and palpation of the second and third metatarsophalangeal joints on the plantar proximal, plantar distal, and dorsal aspects. The patients were then injected with 0.5 mL of lidocaine, 2%, into the second and third flexor tendon sheaths, and the maneuvers were repeated.
Results: Before the injection, the second metatarsophalangeal joint had a significantly greater visual analog scale score plantar than dorsal (6.9 and 2.6, P ≤ .01). The flexor tendon sheath injection significantly improved all seven pain scale scores.
Conclusions: Patients with lesser metatarsal overload experienced significantly greater visual analog scale pain scores on the plantar than the dorsal aspect of the second metatarsophalangeal joint. The scores significantly improved after diagnostic injection in the flexor tendon sheaths. The flexor tendon sheaths are probably involved in patients with primarily plantar pain. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 99(2): 129–134, 2009)
In the presence of a large gap where end-to-end repair of the torn Achilles tendon is difficult and V-Y advancement would likely be insufficient, augmentation is sometimes required. At our institute we have used primarily the hamstring autograft augmentation technique for the past two decades. The aim of this study was to analyze the complications after surgical treatment of Achilles tendon rupture with semitendinous tendon augmentation.
We retrospectively analyzed 58 consecutive patients treated with semitendinous tendon autograft augmentation at the Helsinki University Hospital between January 1, 2006, and January 1, 2016.
During the study period, 58 patients were operated on by six different surgeons. Of 14 observed complications (24%), seven were major and seven were minor. Most of the complications were infections (n = 10 [71%]) The infections were noted within a mean of 62 days postoperatively (range, 22–180 days). Seven patients with a complication underwent repeated operation because of skin edge necrosis and deep infection (five patients), hematoma formation (one patient), and a repeated rupture (one patient).
In light of the experience we have had with autologous semitendinous tendon graft augmentation, we cannot recommend this technique, and, hence, we should abandon reconstruction of Achilles tendon ruptures with autologous semitendinous tendon grafts at our institute. Instead, other augmentation techniques, such as flexor hallucis longus tendon transfer, should be used.
Injections, punctures, and aspirations of the first metatarsophalangeal joint are common interventions. Accurate intra-articular placement of the needle is a prerequisite for the achievement of desirable results and the avoidance of complications. We evaluated the rate of successful intra-articular injections and the influence of the degree of operator experience in achieving this success.
A total of 106 cadaveric metatarsophalangeal joints were injected with a methylene blue–containing solution and subsequently dissected to distinguish intra-articular from periarticular injections. To evaluate the importance of experience, 38 injections were performed by a student, 38 by a trained resident, and 30 by an experienced surgeon. In the second part of the study, we examined the relation of pathologic findings of the metatarsophalangeal joint and the accuracy of intra-articular injection.
The overall rate of unintentional periarticular injections remained low (9.4%; 10 of 106 joints). The student achieved a successful intra-articular injection in 86.8% of joints (33 of 38), the resident in 92.1% (35 of 38), and the specialist in 93.3% (28 of 30). The number of extra-articular injections increased significantly with the presence of deformity (hallux valgus) and arthritis of the first metatarsophalangeal joint.
The presence of pathologic changes reduces the rate of successful intra-articular joint puncture. However, the overall frequency of successful intra-articular injections can be improved through experience and the use of imaging. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 103(3): 204–207, 2013)
A 16-question post-treatment survey was sent to 874 patients after extracorporeal shockwave treatment for chronic plantar fasciitis. Of the 377 surveys returned, 353 were used for analysis. These patients were treated by 169 physicians in 19 states using either electrohydraulic or electromagnetic extracorporeal shockwave equipment. Seventy-six percent of the patients underwent treatment after having had continued pain for a year or longer. Seventy percent of patients who rated their pretreatment pain level as severe (score ≥ 8 on a scale from 1 to 10) experienced sharp declines in pain, with a sharp decline considered to be a difference in pain level before and after treatment of 3 or more. In addition, 66% of patients who rated their pretreatment immobility as severe (score ≥ 8 on a scale from 1 to 10) experienced sharp declines in immobility. Of the patients who underwent extracorporeal shockwave treatment, 69% indicated that they would recommend this procedure to someone in a similar situation. If extracorporeal shockwave treatment were not available, 62% of patients indicated that they would have undergone open or invasive surgery, and 41% indicated that they would have continued with additional physician office visits. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 95(6): 517–524, 2005)
Morton's neuroma is a common condition that mainly affects middle-aged women, and many articles have addressed the surgical treatment of this condition. Previous reports have described bilateral neuroma excision in women but not in men. We report a rare case of bilateral neuromas in a male patient treated with simultaneous neurectomy.
Background: Sinus tarsi syndrome is characterized by permanent pain on the anterolateral side of the ankle due to chronic inflammation characterized by fibrotic tissue remnants and synovitis accumulation after repeated traumatic injuries. Few studies have documented the outcome of injection treatments for sinus tarsi syndrome. We sought to determine the effects of corticosteroid and local anesthetic (CLA), platelet-rich plasma (PRP), and ozone injections on sinus tarsi syndrome.
Methods: Sixty patients with sinus tarsi syndrome were randomly divided into three treatment groups: CLA, PRP, and ozone injections. Outcome measures were visual analog scale, American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society Ankle-Hindfoot Scale (AOFAS), Foot Function Index, and Foot and Ankle Outcome Score before injection compared with 1, 3, and 6 months after injection.
Results: At the end of months 1, 3, and 6 after injection, significant improvements were observed in all three groups compared with baseline (P < .001 for all). At months 1 and 3, improvements in AOFAS scores were similar in the CLA and ozone groups; those in the PRP group were lower (P = .001 and P = .004, respectively). At month 1, improvements in Foot and Ankle Outcome Score were similar in the PRP and ozone groups and higher in the CLA group (P < .001). At 6-month follow-up, there were no significant differences in visual analog scale and Foot Function Index results among the groups (P > .05).
Conclusions: Ozone, CLA, or PRP injections could provide clinically significant functional improvement for at least 6 months in patients with sinus tarsi syndrome.