Although tetanus is a preventable disease, several cases are reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention each year. Many conditions treated by podiatric physicians carry the risk of infection by Clostridium tetani, and it is advisable for podiatrists to update a patient's tetanus immunization status if the patient presents with a tetanus-prone wound.
Stingray injuries are most commonly characterized by localized pain, ulceration, and edema; however, potentially serious sequelae may result, including tissue necrosis and life-threatening infection. This case report describes a stingray injury that had progressed to ulceration and was treated with topical application of recombinant human platelet-derived growth factor-BB (becaplermin gel 0.01%) and a standardized regimen of wound care.
A maculopapular rash has been associated with the administration of imipenem-cilastatin, an antibiotic that was used for treatment of a postoperative infection. This is a first-time association of imipenem with a leukocytoclastic vasculitic reaction. Leukocytoclastic vasculitis has been previously documented with ciprofloxacin, zidovudine, piperazine, and lithium.
Bite wounds of the lower extremities present a challenge in diagnosis and management. Primary care of the initial injury remains controversial. Innocuous as these wounds may appear, severe infections are frequent. The microbial flora of the animal mouth harbor a multitude of unusual bacteria, aerobic and anaerobic, that make antibiotic selection difficult. A protocol for initial management and antibiotic selection is presented.
The authors present a case of bullous dermatosis in a diabetic patient. The lesions were drained and deroofed, and at 1-year follow-up, the patient related no problems. Proper diagnosis and treatment of these lesions will avoid infection and ulceration.
A study on the incidence and causative organisms of pedal superficial white onychomycosis within several patient populations is presented. Early recognition, debridement, and topical antifungal therapy for several weeks with attention to biomechanical factors should resolve the infection and prevent progression to a more destructive form of onychomycosis.
The authors presented an overview of the development of antibiotic-loaded bone cement beads and their indications for usage, method of application, advantages, disadvantages, and causes of failure. This method of treatment for bone and soft tissue infections of the foot is not a panacea and should be used only in selected cases. The vascular status and the physiologic ability of the patient to heal a peripheral wound or infection are the basis for the success of this method of therapy. European literature makes little mention of adjunctive systemic antibiotic therapy with local antibiotic-loaded bone cement bead use. It is the authors' opinion that clinical judgment should be used to determine the necessity for such therapy.
Tea-tree oil (oil of Melaleuca alternifolia) has recently received much attention as a natural remedy for bacterial and fungal infections of the skin and mucosa. As with most naturally occurring agents, claims of effectiveness have been only anecdotal; however, several published studies have recently demonstrated tea-tree oil's antibacterial activity. This study was conducted to determine the activity of tea-tree oil against 58 clinical isolates: Candida albicans (n = 10), Trichophyton rubrum (n = 8), Trichophyton mentagrophytes (n = 9), Trichophyton tonsurans (n = 10), Aspergillus niger (n = 9), Penicillium species (n = 9), Epidermophyton floccosum (n = 2), and Microsporum gypsum (n = 1). Tea-tree oil showed inhibitory activity against all isolates tested except one strain of E floccosum. These in vitro results suggest that tea-tree oil may be useful in the treatment of yeast and fungal mucosal and skin infections.
More inpatient hospital days are used for the care of diabetic foot infection than for any other diabetic sequela. Both the number of lower extremity amputations and the overall treatment cost of treating diabetic infections may be reduced by using a team approach in the care of the infected diabetic pedal wound. The authors propose an evaluation and treatment protocol of infected pedal ulcerations in an urban, community teaching institution when admitted to an established, multidisciplinary diabetic foot care team. The hospital course of 111 patients admitted with a primary diagnosis of infected pedal ulceration are retrospectively reviewed. Results revealed an average-length hospital stay of 7.4 days with a 96% limb-salvage rate. The authors suggest that in the treatment of the infected pedal wound, a diabetic foot care team with a well developed treatment protocol may yield a consistently favorable outcome and a cost-effective hospital course.
The deep fascia of the foot lies beneath the subcutaneous tissue and surrounds the intrinsic foot muscles. Depending on its location, the composition of the deep fascia varies. In some areas it is thin, while in other areas it is greatly thickened to form retinacula and the plantar aponeurosis. Selected clinical considerations that relate to the deep fascia of the foot are described. These include the following: plantar fasciitis, infection, compartment syndrome, calcaneal fracture, and neuroma.