Subcutaneous fungal infections are relatively uncommon in the lower extremity. Mycetoma begins as painless papules or nodules that increase in size and progresses to involve the connective tissue. Diagnosis is based on biopsy, with definitive identification of the organism needed for effective treatment. Treatment consists of antifungal medications and surgical debridement. This article provides an overview of this disorder and reports on a case of recurrent mycetoma in a 70-year-old woman.
Ciprofloxacin is the first of the new class of antibiotics known as fluoroquinolones to be approved for use in skin, skin structure, and bone and joint infections. It has an extremely broad spectrum and is particularly effective against traditionally resistant gram-negative rods. As an oral agent, it is as effective as parenteral drugs against a variety of organisms and diseases. Its spectrum, pharmacokinetics, and podiatric indications are reviewed.
Hand-foot-and-mouth disease is a highly contagious disease most often seen in children during the summer. It is caused most commonly by the virus coxsackie A16, but other enteroviruses have been implicated. It presents with low grade fever, and a vesicular eruption on the hands, feet, and mouth. More serious manifestations are seen less commonly. Diagnosis is most often clinical and treatment is symptomatic in nature. The infection in a male adult is presented.
Background: The objective of this investigation was to evaluate adverse short-term outcomes following open lower extremity bypass surgery in subjects with diabetes mellitus with a specific comparison performed based on subject height.
Methods: The American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database was analyzed to select those subjects with CPT codes 35533, 35540, 35556, 35558, 35565, 35566, 35570 and 35571 and with the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus. This resulted in 83 subjects ≤60 inches, 1084 subjects >60 inches and <72 inches, and 211 subjects ≥72 inches.
Results: No differences were observed between groups with respect to the development of a superficial surgical site infection (9.6% vs. vs. 6.4% vs. 5.7%; p=0.458), deep incisional infection (1.2% vs. 1.4% vs. 2.8%; p=0.289), sepsis (2.4% vs. 2.0% vs. 2.8%; p=0.751), unplanned reoperation (19.3% vs. 15.6% vs. 21.8%; p=0.071), nor unplanned hospital readmission (19.3% vs. 14.8% vs. 17.1%; p=0.573). A significant difference was observed between groups with respect to the development of a wound disruption (4.8% vs. 1.3% vs. 4.7%; p=0.001). A multivariate regression analysis was performed of the wound disruption outcome with the age, gender, race, ethnicity, height, weight, current smoker and open wound/wound infection variables. Race (p=0.025) and weight (p=0.003) were found to be independently associated with wound disruption, but height was not (p=0.701).
Conclusions: The results of this investigation demonstrate no significant difference in short-term adverse outcomes following the performance of lower extremity bypass surgery based on patient height.
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Corynebacterium striatum (C. striatum) is known to colonize the skin and mucous membranes of most normal human hosts. While it is frequently isolated in clinical laboratories, the clinical significance of C. striatum is often unknown with respect to diabetic foot infections with osteomyelitis. There have been very few studies published on this topic, and even fewer that report on treatment courses. To our knowledge, there has been no study published reporting diabetic foot osteomyelitis with isolation of C. striatum from bone culture.
METHODS: Four patients were known to have been treated at our facility for C. striatum diabetic foot osteomyelitis. The medical records for each patient were thoroughly reviewed with close attention directed towards the past medical history, wound duration, wound and bone cultures, antimicrobial therapy and clinical outcomes.
RESULTS: Bone cultures of all 4 patients were notable for C. striatum. Diphtheroids were also noted on wound cultures for 3 patients which were not speciated. All bone cultures were obtained during surgical treatment of the diabetic foot infection. All patients were type II diabetics but varied with respect to age and gender. All patients were treated with an extended course of antibiotics and/or surgical resection of osteomyelitis. Patients were followed until complete wound closure.
CONCLUSIONS: We report four cases of diabetic foot osteomyelitis in which C. striatum was noted and treated as a pathogen. Diphtheroids are often overlooked as a potential pathogen in diabetic foot infections and rarely treated as such. However, our findings suggest that clinicians should consider C. striatum as a possible cause of osteomyelitis, especially when patients fail to completely heal wounds in a timely manner that have previously and repeatedly displayed Diphtheroids from cultures.
Forty-eight Austin bunionectomies were fixated by using an absorbable fixation device. Twenty-three were fixated with a 1.5- or 2.0-mm diameter Biofix rod and twenty-five were fixated with a 1.3-mm diameter Orthosorb pin. To be included in this project, all patients were followed radiographically for a minimum of 3 months. One foot (4%) fixated with Biofix developed a sterile sinus discharge 3 months postoperatively after uneventful wound healing. There were no clinical or radiographic changes seen in the feet in which Orthosorb was used. Also, there were no infections or osteotomy dislocations with either fixation device.
In March 1949, McKittrick described the use of the transmetatarsal amputation for the diabetic foot, along with specific indications. Infection, ischemia, and neuropathic ulcerations of the toes and forefoot were all treated with this procedure. In the past 30 years, however, advances in the management of these problems have led to a decrease in the number of transmetatarsal amputations performed at the New England Deaconess Hospital. With these advances, the current approach to the transmetatarsal amputation has changed, leading to significant modifications in the basic indications for this procedure.
Dermatologic, vascular, neurologic, and musculoskeletal complications are common among persons with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). These manifestations frequently involve the lower extremities and may be the initial presenting symptoms of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. It is important that practitioners of podiatric medicine be aware of these syndromes to facilitate early diagnosis of AIDS and to provide the best possible care for immunodeficient patients. The author provides a review of the manifestations of AIDS frequently encountered in podiatric practice, along with guidelines for treatment.
Gonococcal arthritis is a frequently occurring clinical entity that should be included routinely in a differential diagnosis of pedal joint pain. Unfortunately, the lack of specificity in the presentation makes gonococcal arthritis difficult to diagnose. Indices of suspicion should rise with any sexually active patient, particularly when septic arthritis is suspected without a detectable portal of entry. The authors emphasize again the importance of carefully choosing empiric antibiotic coverage for gonococcal arthritis. Three factors that should be considered are regional epidemiology, the anatomical site of the primary infection, and the possible coexistence of other infectious agents. Understanding the clinical staging of this condition will help to achieve a timely diagnosis and successful treatment.
Although cutaneous larva migrans is more commonly seen in the southeastern US and tropical regions of the world, patients with such parasitic involvement may present in other non-endemic areas for various reasons, particularly travelers returning from tropical vacations. Awareness of the clinical presentation and symptomatology of cutaneous larva migrans is important for all physicians, including those practicing in northern climates, for prompt recognition and effective treatment of the disease. Furthermore, cutaneous larva migrans should be of particular interest to podiatrists, because the infestation commonly involves the feet, and a patient may initially present for treatment of secondary manifestations, ie, dermatitis, pruritus, or infection, as in this case report.