This study was performed to determine the factors that influence the clinical outcomes of surgically treated ankle fractures associated with the posterior malleolus (PM).
We evaluated 42 fractures of 42 patients. Posterior malleolus fracture size was calculated using computed tomography. Posterior malleolar fractures with a size less than 10% were left nonfixated. The decision for larger fragments was performed using fluoroscopy following the fixation of other components. If the joint was found to be congruent, the PM was left nonfixated. Otherwise, the PM was reduced and fixated. Clinical outcomes were evaluated based on Weber, Freiburg, and American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society scores. Ankle osteoarthritis was determined according to the Canadian Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society classification. The effect of PM fixation, age, PM fragment size, waiting period before surgery, presence of ankle dislocation, and number of injured malleoli on clinical outcomes were assessed. Statistical significance was set at a value of P < .05.
The mean patients age was 48.5 ± 14.9 years (range, 20–84 years) and the mean follow-up was 23.7 ± 8.6 months (range, 12–56 months). Fixation of the PM was performed solely in 12 patients. Postoperative displacement of the PM and articular step were less than 2 mm in all fractures. Statistically significant worse outcomes were demonstrated based on functional scores in the patients with a PM size greater than or equal to 25% (P = .042, P = .038, and P = .048, respectively) and in patients aged 60 years or older (P = .005, P = .007, and P = .018, respectively). However, there was no significant difference between functional scores and the other factors. Ankle osteoarthritis was observed at a higher rate in patients with PM size greater than or equal to 25% and in patients aged 60 years or older.
Clinical outcomes of the patients are mainly influenced by the patient's age and PM fragment size. However, if the tibiotalar joint is congruent, comparable results can be obtained in PM fixated or nonfixated patients.
The normal radiographic anatomy of the foot and ankle, aside from my previous work, has been addressed only superficially or sparingly in the medical literature. This project correlates the detailed radiographic anatomy of the entire adult foot and ankle (two-dimensional) to osteology (three-dimensional). Each bone's position was determined after meticulous examination and correlation to an articulated skeleton relative to the image receptor and direction of the x-ray beam, with correlation to the radiograph for confirmation. Images of each foot and distal leg bone (“front” and “back” perspectives) are presented alongside a corresponding radiographic image for comparison. The normal gross and radiographic anatomy is correlated and described for each radiographic positioning technique. Foundational knowledge is provided that future researchers can use as a baseline (“normal”) and that students and practitioners can use for comparison when interpreting radiographs and distinguishing abnormal findings. The findings from the original project, owing to its broad scope, have been divided into five parts: the lower leg (the focus of this paper), the greater tarsus, the lesser tarsus, the metatarsals, and the phalanges.
We describe a retrospective study that uses the Broström-type surgical procedure with modifications that augment deficient and torn ligaments with acellular human dermal grafts. At the onset of this study, the most prevalent dermal graft available to us was GraftJacket (Wright Medical Technology, Arlington, Tennessee). Greater than 50% of the study participants were grafted with this product, but more recently other equally effective human dermal grafts have been used with no apparent difference.
Thirty-five lateral ankle stabilization procedures were performed in the past 6 years on 33 patients. Eight patients were considered athletes (mean age, 23 years). The balance of the study group consisted of sedentary patients (mean age, 41 years). The mean patient body mass index (calculated as the weight in kilograms divided by the square of the height in meters) was 31.
All of the patients were satisfied with their results, with no recurrent instability. Two patients in this group went on to have contralateral ankle stabilization in a similar manner owing to their satisfaction. Complications included two soft-tissue infections.
Lateral ankle stabilization using acellular human dermal graft augmentation is a useful tool in the surgical treatment of ankle instability. This procedure offers distinct advantages over traditional methods of ankle repair and can be performed with relatively limited surgical exposure. Ease of operation, consistent results, and limited patient morbidity should allow surgeons to use this procedure independently or adjunctively to improve surgical outcomes.
Background: Plantar fascia release for chronic plantar fasciitis has provided excellent pain relief and rapid return to activities with few reported complications. Cadaveric studies have led to the identification of some potential postoperative problems, most commonly weakness of the medial longitudinal arch and pain in the lateral midfoot.
Methods: An electronic search was conducted of the MEDLINE, ScienceDirect, SportDiscus, EMBASE, CINAHL, Cochrane, and AMED databases. The keywords used to search these databases were plantar fasciotomy and medial longitudinal arch. Articles published between 1976 and 2008 were identified.
Results: Collectively, results of cadaveric studies suggested that plantar fasciotomy leads to loss of integrity of the medial longitudinal arch and that total plantar fasciotomy is more detrimental to foot structure than is partial fasciotomy. In vivo studies, although limited in number, concluded that although clinical outcomes were satisfactory, medial longitudinal arch height decreased and the center of pressure of the weightbearing foot was excessively medially deviated postoperatively.
Conclusions: Plantar fasciotomy, in particular total plantar fasciotomy, may lead to loss of stability of the medial longitudinal arch and abnormalities in gait, in particular an excessively pronated foot. Further in vivo studies on the long-term biomechanical effects of plantar fasciotomy are required. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 99(5): 422–430, 2009)
Posterior tibial tendon dysfunction is a progressive deformity that can result in the development of a pathologic flatfoot deformity. Numerous publications have studied the effects of clinical interventions at specific stages of progression of posterior tibial tendon dysfunction, but there is still uncertainty regarding the clinical identification of the condition. It is clear that more information regarding the etiology, progression, and risk factors of posterior tibial tendon dysfunction is required. Clear evidence exists that suggests that the quality of life for patients with posterior tibial tendon dysfunction is significantly affected. Furthermore, evidence suggests that early conservative intervention can significantly improve quality of life regarding disability, function, and pain. This would suggest that significant cost burden reductions could be made by improving awareness of the condition, which would improve early diagnosis. Early conservative intervention may help reduce the number of patients requiring surgery. This review focuses on the etiologic factors, epidemiologic features, and pathogenesis of posterior tibial tendon dysfunction. It aims to analyze, discuss, and debate the current understanding of this condition using the available literature. In addition, there is a discussion of the evidence base surrounding disease characteristics associated with the different clinical stages of posterior tibial tendon dysfunction. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 101(2): 176–186, 2011)