This article presents the development, implementation, and evaluation of a national evidence-based medicine faculty-development program for podiatric medical educators. Ten faculty members representing six accredited colleges of podiatric medicine, one podiatric medical residency program, and a Veterans Affairs podiatry service participated in a 2-day workshop, which included facilitated discussions, minilectures, hands-on exercises, implementation planning, and support after the workshop. Participants’ evidence-based medicine skills were measured by retrospective self-reported ratings before and after the workshop. Participants also reported their implementation of “commitments to change” on follow-up surveys at 3 and 12 months. Participants’ evidence-based medicine practice and teaching skills improved after the intervention. They listed a total of 84 commitments to change, most of which related to the program objectives. By 12 months after the workshop, participants as a group had fully implemented 24 commitments (32%), partially implemented 36 (48%), and failed to implement 15 (20%) of a total of 75 commitments with follow-up data. The most common barriers to change at 12 months were insufficient resources, systems problems, and short patient visit times. A train-the-trainer faculty-development program can improve self-reported evidence-based medicine skills and behaviors and affect curriculum reform at podiatric medical educational institutions. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 95(5): 497–504, 2005)
The authors discuss new library services and support for a podiatric residency program. They present information on how to conduct medical literature searches through the use of MEDLINE and CD-ROM MEDLINE. Information on interlibrary loans also is provided.
Many cadaver-based anatomy courses and surgical workshops use prosections to help podiatry students and residents learn clinically relevant anatomy. The quality of these prosections is variable and dependent upon the methods used to prepare them. These methods have not been adequately described in the literature, and few studies describe the use of chemicals to prepare prosections of the cadaveric foot and ankle. Recognizing the need for better teaching prosections in podiatric education, we developed a chemical application method with underwater dissection to better preserve anatomic structures of the cadaveric foot and ankle.
We used inexpensive chemicals before, during, and after each step, which ultimately resulted in high-quality prosections that improved identification of anatomic structures relevant to the practice of podiatric medicine.
Careful preservation of clinically important nerves, vessels, muscles, ligaments, and joints was achieved with these prosections.
Although this method required additional preparation time, the resultant prosections have been repeatedly used for several years to facilitate learning among podiatry students and residents, and they have held up well. This method can be used by educators to teach podiatry students throughout their medical training and even into residency. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 103(5): 387–393, 2013)
The existing podiatric medical residencies in the Department of Veterans Affairs are reviewed. The suitability of these residencies to fill a potential need for entry level programs is discussed. The financial implications of providing such training are reviewed and a plan for implementation is presented. Ninety-eight rotating podiatric residency positions currently available in Department of Veterans Affairs hospitals are prime candidates to serve as entry level PGY-1 positions. Assurances will need to be given that implementation of the PGY-1 concept must serve the best interests of the veteran patient population, and that funds will need to be allocated to pay faculty salaries and resident stipends. Congressional review of student loan forbearance policies affecting podiatric medical residents is also needed.
As the number and complexity of operative techniques taught at U.S. podiatric medicine and surgical residencies (PMSR) with the added credential in reconstructive rearfoot and ankle (RRA) surgery has continued to increase, so to has the use of intraoperative fluoroscopy. The purpose of the present prospective observational pilot study was to quantify and compare the shallow dose equivalent (SDE), deep dose equivalent (DDE), and lens of the eye dose equivalent (LDE) exposures for podiatric medicine and surgery residents at a single PMSR-RRA over 12 consecutive months. Shallow-dose equivalent, DDE, and LDE exposures (in millirems) were measured using Landauer Luxel dosimeters from July of 2018 to July of 2019. Dosimeters were exchanged monthly, and mean monthly/annual SDE, DDE, and LDE exposures were calculated and compared. Overall, residents averaged 19 operative cases per month and 222 per year. More than half (53%) required intraoperative fluoroscopy, for which a mini C-arm was used in most cases. Monthly SDE, DDE, and LDE exposures averaged 7.3, 9.3, and 7.0 mrem, respectively; whereas annual SDE, DDE, and LDE exposures averaged 87.3, 112, and 84 mrem, respectively. No significant monthly (P = 1.0, P = .70, and P = .74) or annual (P = .67, P = .67, and P = .33) differences were identified between residents. The annual SDE, DDE, and LDE for residents at a single PMSR-RRA were well below the recommended dose limits of 50,000 mrem/year (SDE), 5,000 mrem/year (DDE), and 15,000 mrem/year (LDE) set by the National Council on Radiation Protection. However, given that the stochastic effects from low levels of ionizing radiation are cumulative, not well studied long-term, and relate both to the degree and duration of exposure, mini-C arm fluoroscopy, radiation tracking, and use of personal protective equipment provide simple means for residents to reduce any long-term potential for risk.
The Department of Veterans Affairs is the single largest source of podiatric resident education. The author describes the James A. Haley Veterans Hospital and discusses the development of the podiatric residency training program. A detailed description of all aspects of the training program is presented.
The authors present evidence on the patterns and correlates of surgical referrals to podiatric physicians that suggests a surgical specialty now exists in podiatric medicine. The primary factors on which surgical specialization appears to be based are residency training, hospital medical staff membership, and increased hospital podiatric practice activity. Surgically specialized podiatric physicians tend to be younger, but such specialization is not related to either the gender or race of podiatric physicians.
This study examined the relationships between social and demographic characteristics (ie, gender, race, year in school, desired residency choice, and socioeconomic background), motivations for entering the profession of podiatric medicine (extrinsic and intrinsic rewards), and negative attitudes toward treating elderly patients. The study used ordinary least squares multiple regression models to analyze data from a random, national sample of 448 podiatric medical students. In particular, the ordinary least squares models were developed to determine the independent effect of intrinsic and extrinsic rewards on negative attitudes toward treating elderly patients. Consistent with the study hypotheses, after adjusting for social and demographic characteristics, the study found extrinsic rewards to have strong positive relationships with negative attitudes toward treating elderly patients, and intrinsic rewards to have strong negative relationships with negative attitudes toward treating elderly patients. The authors discussed the implications of the findings for podiatric physicians and educators training podiatric medical students.
The number of older individuals living in the United States is projected to increase significantly over the next few decades. To help meet the health-care needs of this growing population, podiatric medicine must assure the public of the availability of specially educated teachers and practitioners who can not only provide direct patient care, but also participate in establishing national policies and priorities pertaining to foot health. Fellowship training, the traditional educational model beyond the first professional degree and residency education, is one means of accomplishing this goal. This article proposes a model for a geriatric fellowship in podiatric medicine. Implementation of such fellowship training in geriatrics can help the podiatric medical profession pursue its mission and fulfill its responsibility to the public.