This review discusses some of the significant studies and events from the 61st American Diabetes Association’s Scientific Symposium. Many of the issues raised at the meeting will form building blocks for future research into offloading, footwear, wound classification, wound healing, tissue engineering, and psychological aspects of therapy and prevention. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 92(1): 2-6, 2002)
Deep venous thrombosis is a common but underdiagnosed medical condition. The epidemiologic features, economic impact, morbidity, and mortality of venous thromboembolism make it imperative that the podiatric physician be familiar with its pathogenesis as well as its pharmacologic treatment. Medical literature rooted in clinical evidence has demonstrated that low-molecular-weight heparins are safe and effective for the prevention and treatment of venous thromboembolism. The primary purpose of this article is to review the pharmacologic characteristics of low-molecular-weight heparins. Dosing recommendations for low-molecular-weight heparins as they apply to the prevention of deep venous thrombosis are presented. Finally, a dosing criteria chart is presented to assist the podiatric physician in prescribing and evaluating low-molecular-weight heparins as a therapeutic class. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 95(4): 383–389, 2005)
Background: Diabetes-related lower-extremity amputations are largely preventable. Eighty-five percent of amputations are preceded by a foot ulcer. Effective management of ulcers, which leads to healing, can prevent limb loss.
Methods: In a county hospital, we implemented a six-step approach to the diabetic limb at risk. We calculated the frequency and level of lower-extremity amputations for 12 months before and 12 months after implementation of the amputation prevention program. We also calculated the high-low amputation ratio for the years reviewed. The high-low amputation ratio is a quality measure for the success of amputation prevention measures and is calculated as the ratio of the number of high amputations (limb losses) over the number of low (partial foot) amputations.
Results: The frequency of total amputations increased from 24 in year 1 to 46 in year 2. However, the number of limb losses decreased from 7 to 2 (72%). The high-low amputation ratio decreased eightfold in 1 year, which serves as a marker for limb salvage success.
Conclusions: Improvement in care organization and multidisciplinary-centered protocols can substantially reduce limb losses. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 100(2): 101–104, 2010)
An updated selection of high-quality Internet resources related to wound and ulcer care is presented. Of potential use to the podiatric medical practitioner, educator, resident, and student, some Web sites that cover hyperbaric medicine, antibiotic use, and wound and ulcer prevention are also included. These Web sites have been evaluated on the basis of their potential to enhance the practice of podiatric medicine, in addition to contributing to the educational process. Readers who require a quick reference source to wound and ulcer care may find this report useful. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 96(3): 264–268, 2006)
It has been more than 14 years since identification of the human genome. This phenomenon is creating a revolution in all components of the health-care world. To date, little has been included in the podiatric medical literature despite the fact that so many of the conditions affecting the pedal extremity have genomic implications. Genomics will have a major effect on prevention, diagnosis, and patient management and needs to be included in podiatric medical practice as well as in the curriculum of podiatric medical schools.
The etiology of running-related injuries remains unknown; however, an implicit theory underlies much of the conventional research and practice in the prevention of these injuries. This theory posits that the cause of running-related injuries lies in the high-impact forces experienced when the foot contacts the ground and the subsequent abnormal movement of the subtalar joint. The application of this theory is seen in the design of the modern running shoe, with cushioning, support, and motion control. However, a new theory is emerging that suggests that it is the use of these modern running shoes that has caused a maladaptive running style, which contributes to a high incidence of injury among runners. The suggested application of this theory is to cease use of the modern running shoe and transition to barefoot or minimalist running. This new running paradigm, which is at present inadequately defined, is proposed to avoid the adverse biomechanical effects of the modern running shoe. Future research should rigorously define and then test both theories regarding their ability to discover the etiology of running-related injury. Once discovered, the putative cause of running-related injury will then provide an evidence-based rationale for clinical prevention and treatment.
Pressure ulcers of the heel are a major and growing health-care problem. Although prevention and aggressive local wound care and pressure reduction remain the gold standard for treatment of most heel ulcers, recalcitrant wounds may require surgical intervention. Limb salvage when dealing with heel ulcers remains a challenge. Nine feet (eight patients) that underwent partial calcanectomy for chronic nonhealing heel ulcers were evaluated retrospectively. Complete healing occurred in seven of nine feet. Patients who were ambulatory before surgery remained ambulatory after healing. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 95(4): 335–341, 2005)
Background: Ballet dancers are exposed to high rates of foot and ankle injury. Nevertheless, there have been limited efforts to capture their perspectives regarding risk of injury, treatment compliance, and prevention. The purpose of this study was to portray the perspectives of ballet dancers collected through organized focus group discussions.
Methods: Seven focus group sessions were conducted, with 47 ballet dancers participating. The conversation was directed to consider a variety of factors related to injury, both direct and remote. Transcripts from these focus groups were coded into ten major themes: internal pressure, external pressure, ballet milestones, seeking treatment, treatment compliance, targeted treatment, return to dance, nondance activities, physical fatigue, and activity preparation.
Results: It was found that participants returned to dancing prematurely after injury, faced significant internal and external pressure, lacked adherence to suggested treatment, and identified provider communication as lacking.
Conclusions: The results of this study can help with efforts to reduce injuries, encourage treatment compliance, and improve injury prevention. Future studies might consider the effectiveness of specific interventional approaches.
Insoles are commonly used to assist in the prevention of diabetic neuropathic foot ulceration. Insole replacement is often triggered only when foot lesions deteriorate, an indicator that functional performance is comprised and patients are exposed to unnecessary ulcer risk. We investigated the durability of insoles used for ulcer prevention in neuropathic diabetic feet over 12 months.
Sixty neuropathic individuals with diabetes were provided with insoles and footwear. Insole durability over 12 months was evaluated using an in-shoe pressure measurement device and through repeated measurement of material depth at the first metatarsal head and the heel seat. Analysis of variance was performed to assess change across time (at issue, 6 months, and 12 months).
Analyses were conducted using all available data (n = 43) and compliant data (n = 18). No significant difference was found in the reduction of mean peak pressure tested across time (P < .05). For both sites, significant differences in insole depth were identified between issue and 6 months and between issue and 12 months but not between 6 and 12 months (P < .05). Most insole compression occurred during the initial 6 months.
Visual material compression does not seem to be a reliable indicator of insole usefulness. Frequency of insole replacement is best informed by a functional review of effect determined using an in-shoe pressure measurement system. These results suggest that insoles for diabetic neuropathic patients can be effective in maintaining peak pressure reduction for 12 months regardless of wear frequency.
Renal failure is defined as a deterioration of kidney function that results in the retention of nitrogenous waste products. It is increasingly prevalent in older populations, individuals with diabetes or hypertension, and postoperative patients. Therefore, podiatric physicians caring for these populations can expect to encounter this condition frequently. This article describes the epidemiology, causes, complications, and appropriate evaluation of renal failure relevant to a practicing podiatric physician. Also highlighted are treatment considerations, renal dosing of medications, and prevention of contrast nephropathy. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 94(2): 168-176, 2004)