The purpose of this article is to familiarize physicians with the risks of prescribing trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX) for patients who have kidney or cardiac pathology, have hyperkalemia, or take other interacting medications. Although TMP/SMX is a drug that is frequently used to treat skin and soft-tissue infections of the leg and foot, particularly if methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is identified, it is not an innocuous antibiotic. Literature documenting the many adverse effects of TMP/SMX is reviewed. A case history is presented illustrating the association of TMP/SMX with the development of a life-threatening situation. Ways of avoiding these adverse events are discussed, and the use of safer antibiotics is recommended.
An updated selection of high-quality Internet resources related to wound and ulcer care is presented. Of potential use to the podiatric medical practitioner, educator, resident, and student, some Web sites that cover hyperbaric medicine, antibiotic use, and wound and ulcer prevention are also included. These Web sites have been evaluated on the basis of their potential to enhance the practice of podiatric medicine, in addition to contributing to the educational process. Readers who require a quick reference source to wound and ulcer care may find this report useful. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 96(3): 264–268, 2006)
The preferred primary treatment of toe osteomyelitis in diabetic patients is controversial. We compared the outcome of primary nonoperative antibiotic treatment versus digital amputation in patients with diabetes-related chronic digital osteomyelitis.
We conducted a retrospective medical record review of patients treated for digital osteomyelitis at a single center. Patients were divided into two groups according to initial treatment: 1) nonoperative treatment with intravenous antibiotics and 2) amputation of the involved toe or ray. Duration of hospitalization, number of rehospitalizations, and rate of below- or above-the-knee major amputations were evaluated.
The nonoperative group comprised 39 patients and the operative group included 21 patients. The mean ± SD total duration of hospitalization was 24.05 ± 15.43 and 20.67 ± 15.97 days, respectively (P = .43). The mean ± SD number of rehospitalizations after infection recurrence was 2.62 ± 1.63 and 1.67 ± 1.24, respectively (P = .02). During follow-up, the involved digit was eventually amputated in 13 of the 39 nonoperatively treated patients (33.3%). The rate of major amputation (above- or below-knee amputation was four of 39 (10.3%) and three of 21 (14.3%), respectively (P = .69).
Despite a higher rate of rehospitalizations and a high failure rate, in patients with mild and limited digital foot osteomyelitis in the absence of sepsis it may be reasonable to offer a primary nonoperative treatment for digital osteomyelitis of the foot.
Osteomyelitis of the calcaneus combined with a pathologic fracture is a rare and difficult presentation for any practicing foot and ankle surgeon. Treatment for achieving an aseptic nonunion involves a variety of steps, including surgical debridement, antibiotic administration, and fracture stabilization. In this case series, we report a novel technique for the treatment of a tongue-type calcaneal fracture in the setting of chronic osteomyelitis using the Biomet JuggerLoc bone-to-bone system for fixation.
Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis are rare; however, when they occur, they usually present with severe reactions in response to medications and other stimuli. These reactions are characterized by mucocutaneous lesions, which ultimately lead to epidermal death and sloughing. We present a unique case report of Stevens-Johnson syndrome and associated toxic epidermal necrolysis in a 61-year-old man after treatment for a peripherally inserted central catheter infection with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. This case report reviews a rare adverse reaction to a commonly prescribed antibiotic drug used in podiatric medical practice for the management of diabetic foot infections. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 100(4): 299–303, 2010)
Ciprofloxacin and other fluoroquinolones are commonly used broad-spectrum antimicrobial agents for treating bacterial infections. This class of antibiotic drugs has uncommon adverse effects that include tendonitis, tendon ruptures, and other tendon abnormalities. We describe a patient with spontaneous bilateral complete Achilles tendon rupture after ciprofloxacin treatment. Surgical repair was performed successfully, and the patient completed physical rehabilitation without incident. Care should be exercised when selecting pharmaceutical agents to maintain a positive benefit-to-risk balance.
A 55-year-old woman with a complicated infected nonunion after first metatarsophalangeal joint arthrodesis is presented. The patient initially underwent cross-screw fixation for the treatment of hallux rigidus that resulted in joint infection and hardware loosening. A staged surgical approach was undertaken by means of initial hardware removal with implementation of an antibiotic cement spacer followed by revision arthrodesis with interposition of tricortical iliac crest autograft. This case report aims to highlight an accepted surgical approach to address an infected nonunion at the level of the first metatarsophalangeal joint.
Phlegmons are unencapsulated collections of inflammation that track along soft tissues in various parts of the human body. These soft-tissue lesions are uncommon in the lower extremities and can be difficult to identify and treat. This article presents a case of a plantar foot phlegmon in a nondiabetic patient that was recalcitrant to debridement and antibiotics. The patient’s aseptic phlegmon completely resolved with surgical debridement and iodoform packing. This case report demonstrates the role of advanced imaging in the diagnosis of lower-extremity phlegmons and the importance of thorough surgical debridement and packing for successful resolution.
The elderly make more frequent use of general podiatric medical services than the younger population. It is therefore important for podiatric physicians to become familiar with the general principles of infectious disease as applied to an elderly population, which is susceptible to a wider spectrum of disease with more subtle and unusual clinical signs and symptoms. This article reviews the diagnosis and evaluation of suspected infection, appropriate laboratory testing, patterns of specific infectious disease syndromes, and antibiotic use in the elderly. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 94(2): 126-134, 2004)
Pseudomonas aeruginosa has traditionally been considered a common pathogen in diabetic foot infection (DFI), yet the 2012 Infectious Diseases Society of America guideline for DFI states that “empiric therapy directed at P aeruginosa is usually unnecessary.” The objective of this study was to evaluate the frequency of P aeruginosa isolated from bone or tissue cultures from patients with DFI.
This study is a cross-sectional survey of diabetic patients presenting with a foot infection to an urban county hospital between July 1, 2012, and December 31, 2013. All of the patients had at least one debridement procedure during which tissue or bone cultures from operative or bedside debridements were obtained. The χ2 test and the t test of means were used to determine relationships between variables and the frequency of P aeruginosa in culture.
The median number of bacteria isolated from DFI was two. Streptococcus spp and Staphylococcus aureus were the most commonly isolated organisms; P aeruginosa was isolated in only five of 112 patients (4.5%). The presence of P aeruginosa was not associated with the patient's age, glycosylated hemoglobin level, tobacco abuse, the presence of osteomyelitis, a prescription for antibiotic drugs in the preceding 3 months, or the type of operative procedure.
Pseudomonas aeruginosa was an infrequent isolate from DFI in this urban, underserved diabetic population. The presence of P aeruginosa was not associated with any measured risk factors. By introducing a clinical practice guideline, we hope to discourage frontline providers from using routine antipseudomonal antibiotic drugs for DFI.