A 65-year-old Japanese man was admitted to our hospital with fever and inflammation of the right ankle. We initiated antibiotics on suspicion of cellulitis. After no clinical improvement, we performed magnetic resonance imaging, which showed a fluid collection in the flexor hallucis longus (FHL) tendon sheath. Synovial fluid analysis revealed monosodium uric crystals. Final diagnosis was FHL tendonitis secondary to gout proven by synovial fluid analysis. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of FHL tendonitis caused by gout. When ankle inflammation is examined in clinical situations, FHL tendonitis caused by gout should be considered.
A case report is presented of a 65-year-old diabetic woman with an 18-month history of a penetrating ulcer of the plantar aspect of the first metatarsal head with associated sepsis of the first metatarsophalangeal joint and adjacent underlying osteomyelitis. Salvage of the first metatarsophalangeal joint was performed through aggressive soft-tissue and osseous debridement, external fixation with antibiotic-loaded polymethyl methacrylate bone cement, and delayed interpositional autogenous iliac crest bone graft arthrodesis. Osseous incorporation of the interposed bone graft occurred 12 weeks postoperatively. No soft-tissue or osseous complications occurred during the postoperative period, and at 1-year follow-up there was no evidence of ulceration recurrence, transfer ulceration, shoe-fit problems, or gait abnormalities. A detailed review of the literature on the use of external fixation and interpositional bone graft distraction arthrodesis of the first metatarsophalangeal joint is presented. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 94(5): 492–498, 2004)
Regarding antibiotic-loaded cements, there is an abundant amount of literature regarding the antibacterial in vitro inhibitory and clinical applications for the treatment of osteomyelitis. The opposite can be said about literature regarding in vitro antifungal-loaded cement drug delivery for the treatment of fungal osteomyelitis.
Aspergillus fumigatus and Candida (ATCC 1023ATCC, Manassas, Virginia) were plated on antibiotic/antifungal-free plates. Voriconazole- and amphotericin B–impregnated calcium sulfate and hydroxyapatite (HA) disks, calcium sulfate + HA control disks, and control polymethylmethacrylate disks were laid separately onto plates separately inoculated with Aspergillus and Candida spp. The zones of inhibition obtained were measured in millimeters at 24, 36, and 96 hours.
Etest (bioMérieux, Marcy l'Etoile, France) results demonstrated susceptibility of Aspergillus and Candida to amphotericin B and voriconazole. The zone of inhibition data demonstrated that voriconazole and amphotericin B retained their antifungal activity when mixed into the calcium sulfate + HA bone void filler and eluted at biologically effective antifungal concentrations over 96 hours.
The calcium sulfate + HA bone void filler is a biocompatible ceramic carrier vehicle that can successfully deliver the antifungal drugs voriconazole and amphotericin B in the adjunctive treatment of fungal osteomyelitis. It is a reliable strategy in the local delivery of antifungal drugs to an area of osteomyelitis.
Diabetic foot infections are a common and often serious problem, accounting for more hospital bed days than any other complication of diabetes. Despite advances in antibiotic drug therapy and surgical management, these infections continue to be a major risk factor for amputations of the lower extremity. Although a variety of wound size and depth classification systems have been adapted for use in codifying diabetic foot ulcerations, none are specific to infection. In 2003, the International Working Group on the Diabetic Foot developed guidelines for managing diabetic foot infections, including the first severity scale specific to these infections. The following year, the Infectious Diseases Society of America published their diabetic foot infection guidelines. Herein, we review some of the critical points from the Executive Summary of the Infectious Diseases Society of America document and provide a commentary following each issue to update the reader on any pertinent changes that have occurred since publication of the original document in 2004.
The importance of a multidisciplinary limb salvage team, apropos of this special issue jointly published by the American Podiatric Medical Association and the Society for Vascular Surgery, cannot be overstated. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 100(5): 395–400, 2010)
Linezolid, a mild monoamine oxidase inhibitor, is a commonly used antibiotic drug for the treatment of complicated skin and skin structure infections, including diabetic foot infections. Use of linezolid has been associated with serotonin syndrome, a potentially life-threatening condition typically caused by the combination of two or more medications with serotonergic properties, due to increased serotonin release. The goals of this article are to highlight the risk factors associated with the development of serotonin syndrome related to the use of linezolid and to aid in its prevention and early diagnosis. In this case series we report on two hospitalized patients who, while being treated with linezolid for pedal infections, developed serotonin syndrome. Both individuals were also undergoing treatment with at least one serotonergic agent for depression and had received this medication within 2 weeks of starting the antibiotic drug therapy. In these individuals, we noted agitation, confusion, tremors, and tachycardia within a few days of initiation of linezolid therapy. Owing to the risk of serotonin toxicity, care should be taken when prescribing linezolid in conjunction with any other serotonergic agent. Although serotonin syndrome is an infrequent complication, it can be potentially life threatening. Therefore, risks and benefits of therapy should be weighed before use.
Herpetic whitlow is a viral infection of the fingers or toes caused by the herpes simplex virus. Herpes simplex virus is a common pathogen that causes infections in any cutaneous or mucocutaneous surface, most commonly gingivostomatitis or genital herpes. However, infection of the digits is also infrequently reported. Herpetic whitlow occurs when the virus infects the distal phalanx of the fingers or toes by means of direct inoculation, causing pain, swelling, erythema, and vesicle formation. The proper diagnosis is important because the condition can mimic various other podiatric abnormalities such as paronychia, bacterial cellulitis, or even embolic disease. Improper diagnosis often leads to unnecessary work-up, antibiotic therapy, or even surgical intervention. This case will help illuminate the clinical presentation of herpetic whitlow in an atypical location, and the patient’s subsequent treatment. We present an atypical case of right hallux herpetic whitlow with delayed diagnosis and associated cellulitis. The patient was admitted after seeing multiple providers for a progressive right hallux infection that presented as a mixture of vesicular lesions and apparent cellulitis. His history was positive for biting his fingernails and toenails, and the lesions were noted to be honeycomb-like, with minimal drainage. The lesions were then deroofed and viral cultures were obtained, which were positive for herpes simplex virus type 1, thus confirming a diagnosis of herpetic whitlow. Although he remained afebrile with negative wound cultures during admission, a secondary bacterial infection could not be excluded because of his nail avulsion and surrounding cellulitis. He was discharged on oral antibiotics, antivirals, and wound care recommendations. Herpetic whitlow should be included in the differential diagnosis of pedal digital lesions that appear as vesicular or cellulitic in the pediatric population.
Maggot Therapy in “Lower-Extremity Hospice” Wound Care
Fewer Amputations and More Antibiotic-Free Days
We sought to assess, in a case-control model, the potential efficacy of maggot debridement therapy in 60 nonambulatory patients (mean ± SD age, 72.2 ± 6.8 years) with neuroischemic diabetic foot wounds (University of Texas grade C or D wounds below the malleoli) and peripheral vascular disease. Twenty-seven of these patients (45%) healed during 6 months of review. There was no significant difference in the proportion of patients healing in the maggot debridement therapy versus control group (57% versus 33%). Of patients who healed, time to healing was significantly shorter in the maggot therapy than in the control group (18.5 ± 4.8 versus 22.4 ± 4.4 weeks). Approximately one in five patients (22%) underwent a high-level (above-the-foot) amputation. Patients in the control group were three times as likely to undergo amputation (33% versus 10%). Although there was no significant difference in infection prevalence in patients undergoing maggot therapy versus controls (80% versus 60%), there were significantly more antibiotic-free days during follow-up in patients who received maggot therapy (126.8 ± 30.3 versus 81.9 ± 42.1 days). Maggot debridement therapy reduces short-term morbidity in nonambulatory patients with diabetic foot wounds. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 95(3): 254–257, 2005)
The increasing resistance of bacteria to antibiotics and the frequency of comorbid conditions of patients make the treatment of diabetic foot infections problematic. In this context, photodynamic therapy could be a useful tool to treat infected wounds. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of repeated applications of a phthalocyanine derivative (RLP068) on the bacterial load and on the healing process.
The present analysis was performed on patients with clinically infected ulcers who had been treated with RLP068. A sample for microbiological culture was collected at the first visit before and immediately after the application of RLP068 on the ulcer surface, and the area was illuminated for 8 minutes with a red light. The whole procedure was repeated three times per week at two centers (Florence and Arezzo, Italy) (sample A), and two times per week at the third center (Stuttgart, Germany) (sample B) for 2 weeks.
Sample A and sample B were composed of 55 and nine patients, respectively. In sample A, bacterial load decreased significantly after a single treatment, and the benefit persisted for 2 weeks. Similar effects of the first treatment were observed in sample B. In both samples, the ulcer area showed a significant reduction during follow-up, even in patients with ulcers infected with gram-negative germs or with exposed bone.
RLP068 seems to be a promising topical wound management procedure for the treatment of infected diabetic foot ulcers.
Diabetic foot osteomyelitis is common and causes substantial morbidity, including major amputations, yet the optimal treatment approach is unclear. We evaluated an approach to limb salvage that combines early surgical debridement or limited amputation with antimicrobial therapy.
We conducted a retrospective cohort study of patients treated between May 1, 2005, and May 31, 2007. The primary end point was cure, defined as not requiring further treatment for osteomyelitis of the affected limb. The secondary end point was limb salvage, defined as not requiring a below-the-knee amputation or a more proximal amputation.
Fifty patients with diabetic foot osteomyelitis met the study criteria. Initial surgical management included local amputation in 43 patients (86%) and debridement without amputation in seven (14%). Most infections (n = 30; 60%) were polymicrobial, and Staphylococcus aureus was the most common pathogen (n = 23; 46%). Parenteral antibiotics were used in 45 patients (90%). Patients who had pathologic evidence of osteomyelitis at the surgical margin received therapy for a median of 43 days (interquartile range [IQR], 36–56 days), whereas those without evidence of residual osteomyelitis received therapy for a median of 19 days (IQR, 13–40 days). Overall, 32 patients (64%) were considered cured after a median follow-up of 26 months (IQR, 12–38 months). Fifteen of 18 patients (83%) who failed initial therapy were treated again with limb-sparing surgery. Limb salvage was achieved in 47 patients (94%), with only three patients (6%) requiring below-the-knee amputation.
In patients with diabetic foot osteomyelitis, surgical debridement or limited amputation plus antimicrobial therapy is effective at achieving clinical cure and limb salvage. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 102(4): 273–277, 2012)
Presented here is a preliminary report of 102 patients who underwent first metatarsocuneiform joint arthrodeses performed with external fixation for the correction of hallux valgus. The advantages of using external fixation are the ability to initiate early weightbearing, predictable fusion, and removal of all of the hardware postoperatively. In the 102 patients reported here, the average time to initiation of unassisted full weightbearing was 13.1 days. The average time to fusion was 5.3 weeks, with removal of the external fixator at an average of 5.5 weeks postoperatively. There was no incidence of delayed union or nonunion. There was one case of pin-tract irritation, which resolved with appropriate pin care and a short course of oral antibiotics. External fixation is an effective alternative to traditional internal fixation techniques in metatarsocuneiform joint arthrodesis. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 95(4): 405–409, 2005)