Background: A variety of treatment modalities have been described for cutaneous warts. We sought to determine the safety and efficacy of a topical formulation of cantharidin, podophyllotoxin, and salicylic acid in the treatment of plantar warts. This combination treatment is widely used in Europe and elsewhere but has not been described in the podiatric medical literature.
Methods: A retrospective study was conducted of 144 patients with simple or mosaic plantar warts who were treated with a topical, pharmacy-compounded solution of cantharidin, 1%; podophyllotoxin, 5%; and salicylic acid, 30%. All of the patients, aged 8 to 52 years (mean ± SD, 20.9 ± 11.0 years), were treated according to the authors3 standard protocol. Of the 144 patients, 92 were being treated for the first time. None of the 52 previously treated patients had received more than one other type of treatment in the past.
Results: After 6 months of follow-up, complete eradication of the plantar warts was noted in 138 of the 144 patients (95.8%). Of these patients, 125 (86.8%) required a single application of the solution, and 13 (9.0%) needed two or more applications. No significant adverse effects or complications were observed.
Conclusion: A topical solution of cantharidin, podophyllotoxin, and salicylic acid was found to be safe and effective in the treatment of simple and mosaic plantar warts. This formulation is a promising alternative treatment modality for plantar warts. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 98(6): 445–450, 2008)
One of the most common supplementary techniques for hallux valgus (HV) surgery is proximal phalanx correction proposed by Akin. This study aims to determine the influence of the Akin procedure on the outcome of scarf osteotomy for HV correction.
This prospective randomized study on 145 patients diagnosed with moderate to severe HV who underwent a scarf corrective osteotomy was carried out between 2011 and 2016. Patients were divided into two groups based on the additional Akin correction of the proximal phalanx. Postoperative follow-up was 2 years. The patients underwent an examination performed by two orthopedic surgeons twice—at the primary visit (qualification for the surgery and the study) and at the final follow-up. In between, the patients remained under the care of one of the physicians. Data collected included biometric records, radiographs (eg, hallux valgus angle [HVA]), intermetatarsal angle, American Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Society Hallux Metatarsophalangeal Index, and visual analog scale score for pain and satisfaction.
There was a significant difference in comparison of the HVA between the groups at the final follow-up. Other collected parameters were similar (American Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Society Hallux Metatarsophalangeal Index, level of pain, and satisfaction). The complication rate was also similar between the groups. We observed comparable rates of reconsent to the treatment and foot appearance satisfaction in both groups.
Regardless of additional Akin correction, the outcome was comparable. Despite a significant difference in HVA score, pain and satisfaction level were similar. Based on our results, the Akin procedure may not provide substantial benefit as an adjunct to the scarf procedure.
In the presence of a large gap where end-to-end repair of the torn Achilles tendon is difficult and V-Y advancement would likely be insufficient, augmentation is sometimes required. At our institute we have used primarily the hamstring autograft augmentation technique for the past two decades. The aim of this study was to analyze the complications after surgical treatment of Achilles tendon rupture with semitendinous tendon augmentation.
We retrospectively analyzed 58 consecutive patients treated with semitendinous tendon autograft augmentation at the Helsinki University Hospital between January 1, 2006, and January 1, 2016.
During the study period, 58 patients were operated on by six different surgeons. Of 14 observed complications (24%), seven were major and seven were minor. Most of the complications were infections (n = 10 [71%]) The infections were noted within a mean of 62 days postoperatively (range, 22–180 days). Seven patients with a complication underwent repeated operation because of skin edge necrosis and deep infection (five patients), hematoma formation (one patient), and a repeated rupture (one patient).
In light of the experience we have had with autologous semitendinous tendon graft augmentation, we cannot recommend this technique, and, hence, we should abandon reconstruction of Achilles tendon ruptures with autologous semitendinous tendon grafts at our institute. Instead, other augmentation techniques, such as flexor hallucis longus tendon transfer, should be used.
A prospective, randomized study was conducted to determine the effect of biofeedback-assisted relaxation training on foot ulcer healing. For patients with chronic nonhealing foot ulcers, medical care was combined with a standardized biofeedback-assisted relaxation training program in the experimental group. The intervention was designed to increase peripheral perfusion, thereby promoting healing. A total of 32 patients with chronic nonhealing ulcers participated in the study. In the experimental group, 14 out of 16 ulcers (87.5%) healed, as compared with 7 out of 16 ulcers (43.8%) in the control group. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 91(3): 132-141, 2001)
Achilles tendon injuries are among the three most frequent sports-related injuries of the foot and ankle. Proper function of the Achilles tendon is critical to performance in sports. A thorough knowledge of the anatomy and biomechanical function of this tendon is essential to the effective treatment of these injuries. Distinguishing among the various pathologies of the Achilles tendon is an important first step toward successful treatment and return of the athlete to sports activity. The term Achilles tendinitis is a nonspecific diagnosis that does not accurately describe an actual injury. This review is intended to provide the sports medicine physician with a means of classifying Achilles tendon injuries and, thus, arriving at an accurate diagnosis and treatment plan. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 97(1): 37–48, 2007)
We sought to demonstrate the healing efficacy of an antimicrobial hydrogel containing Oakin, an oak extract, to heal postoperative partial and total chemical matrixectomies.
Sixty participants were eligible for this open-label prospective study by having an ingrown toenail and a willingness to have the ingrown portion of the nail or the entire toenail permanently removed. All of the participants underwent a similar nail surgery, were provided a postoperative kit that included the study hydrogel, and received the same sheet of instructions for aftercare.
Fifty-four participants could be contacted for follow-up and final evaluation; 54% (n = 29) were men and 46% (n = 25) were women. Eighty-nine partial hallux nail avulsions with phenol matrixectomy were performed. The median ± SD time to healing was 7.00 ± 0.00 days for 80% of participants (n = 43) and 8.85 ± 4.15 days for 98% (n = 53). An analysis of variance showed that the proportion healed time trend is significant (F 1,53 = 79.265; P < .001).
The study hydrogel's ability to stop phenol's caustic activity is clinically beneficial in phenol matrixectomy aftercare. Providing each participant with a kit that included the same dressing supplies yielded consistent aftercare outcomes and 98% patient satisfaction (n = 53). The findings show that the Oakin-containing hydrogel was efficacious in healing phenol matrixectomies without the need for soaking. Furthermore, we suggest that the study hydrogel could also reduce healing times.
Toe amputation is the most common partial foot amputation. Controversy exists regarding whether to primarily close toe amputations or to leave them open for secondary healing. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the results of closed toe amputations in diabetic patients, with respect to wound healing, complications, and the need for further higher level amputation.
We retrospectively reviewed the results of 40 elective or semi-elective toe amputations with primary closure performed in 35 patients treated in a specialized diabetic foot unit. Patients with abscesses or necrotizing fasciitis were treated emergently and were excluded. Patients in whom clean margins could not be achieved due to extensive cellulitis or tenosynovitis and patients requiring vascular intervention were excluded as well. Outcome endpoints included wound healing at 3 weeks, delayed wound healing, or subsequent higher level amputation.
Out of 40 amputations, 38 healed well. Thirty amputations healed by the time of stitch removal at 3 weeks and eight had delayed healing. In two patients the wounds did not heal and subsequent higher level amputation was eventually required.
In carefully selected diabetic foot patients, primary closure of toe amputations is a safe surgical option. We do not recommend primary closure when infection control is not achieved or in patients requiring vascular reconstruction. Careful patient selection, skillful assessment of debridement margins and meticulous technique are required and may be offered by experienced designated surgeons in a specialized diabetic foot unit.
Efficacy of Terbinafine for Toenail Onychomycosis
A Multicenter Trial of Various Treatment Durations
The efficacy of terbinafine (250 mg/day) in the treatment of toenail onychomycosis was evaluated in a large open-label, multicenter trial of 12, 18, and 24 weeks of therapy. All 1,534 patients had onychomycosis, confirmed by either positive potassium hydroxide (KOH) wet mount, positive fungal culture, or both, and all received at least 12 weeks of treatment. Treatment was continued for an additional 6 or 12 weeks, depending on the extent of the disease at follow-up. Mycologic cure rates (negative culture plus negative KOH) at week 72 were 72.1% in the 12-week treatment group, 72.5% in the 18-week group, and 77.0% in the 24-week group. In all groups, clinical cure rates were higher at week 72 than at week 48: 49.5% of the 12-week group, 49.2% of the 18-week group, and 44.6% of the 24-week group experienced clinical cure by the end of the study. Both mycologic and clinical recurrence rates were low in all treatment groups at the 72-week assessment. The results of this study confirm the efficacy of terbinafine in the treatment of toenail onychomycosis as demonstrated in previous registration and large-scale clinical trials. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 91(3): 127-131, 2001)
Reinforcement of the Flexor Tendon Repair Using Human Amniotic Membrane
A Biomechanical Evaluation Using the Modified Kessler Method of Tendon Repair
Human amniotic membrane is used to prevent peritendinous adhesions after tendon injuries. This study compares the mechanical properties of modified Kessler repairs and modified Kessler repairs strengthened using multiple layers of human amniotic membrane.
Twenty flexor digitorum profundus tendons of sheep forelimbs were sutured by the two-strand modified Kessler technique (group A) and by the two-strand modified Kessler repair reinforced with multiple layers of human amniotic membrane (group B). To assess the mechanical performance of the repairs, tendons were subjected to a linear noncyclic load-to-failure test using a material testing machine. Outcome measures included ultimate forces and the mode of failure.
The mean ± SD value of the failure strength was 34.6 ± 1.64 N for group A and 50.6 ± 5.60 N for group B. The reinforced repair provided a significantly higher ultimate load compared with the nonreinforced group (P < .001). All of the specimens failed due to suture breakage at the repair site.
The results of this study show that the modified Kessler repair can be reinforced effectively with human amniotic membrane.
In this retrospective review, 19 diabetic patients with significant lower-extremity pathology were assessed to determine the success of limb salvage in cases of varying complexity. The patients were either scheduled or at risk for below-the-knee amputation before intervention. After the limb-salvage procedure, patients were followed for 4 months to 9 years. Eighteen patients went on to have successful procedures, avoiding below-the-knee amputation; one patient had an above-the-knee amputation. The results demonstrate the benefits of an aggressive team approach with limb salvage as a goal. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 92(8): 457-462, 2002)