Spontaneous Achilles tendon rupture associated with long-term oral steroid use is not uncommon, particularly in older patients who use these drugs daily to treat systemic diseases. Rupture often results in a large defect, which complicates surgical repair. The authors review Achilles tendon rupture associated with systemic and local steroid use and present a case of rupture due to chronic oral steroid use in a patient with Addison’s disease. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 92(6): 355-358, 2002)
Background: Dilute alcohol injection has been described as a nonsurgical treatment option for interdigital nerve compression of the foot, also known as “Morton’s neuroma.” This study reviews the efficacy of the procedure in 49 feet at one treatment center.
Methods: In this historical cohort study, data from 42 patients who had undergone alcohol injection therapy were obtained from clinic records. A total of 49 feet were reviewed.
Results: Symptoms were improved or resolved in 30 (61%) of 49 feet. Nineteen feet (39%) were unimproved, with 12 of those progressing to surgical neurectomy. Feet that received five or more injections were more likely to improve (74%) than those that received fewer than five injections (39%). Three patients reported mild complications associated with dilute alcohol injection, all of which resolved spontaneously within 2 days of the injection.
Conclusions: Dilute alcohol injection is a safe and effective treatment option for patients with Morton’s neuroma who want to avoid a surgical procedure and any associated complications. The procedure may be more successful if the patient receives at least five injections. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 97(3): 203–206, 2007)
The authors present a case of a traumatic extensor hallucis longus tendon rupture sustained 2 days after hallux valgus and hammer toe correction. The ruptured tendon, separated by a 6-cm defect, was repaired using a fascia lata allograft. This case demonstrates a serious complication of a commonly performed procedure and a salvage technique useful for dealing with large tendon defects. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 92(8): 467-470, 2002)
We describe a man with an acute osteochondral defect in the lateral talar dome associated with a supination-adduction–type ankle fracture. The osteochondral defect was readily visible on plain film radiographs, and magnetic resonance imaging was ordered to determine the full extent of soft-tissue and articular injury. It was discovered that the patient had a stage IV lesion of the talar dome, with complete inversion of the fragment, and rupture of the anterior talofibular and calcaneofibular lateral ankle ligaments. Furthermore, the patient experienced an oblique fracture of the medial malleolus with comminution. The talar dome lesion was surgically reduced and fixated using bioabsorbable pins. Nine months after surgery, the patient was fully recovered from his injury and had no functional limitations. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 96(3): 256–259, 2006)
There are more than ten classification systems currently used in the staging of hallux rigidus. This results in confusion and inconsistency with radiographic interpretation and treatment. The reliability of hallux rigidus classification systems has not yet been tested. We sought to evaluate the intraobserver and interobserver reliabilities of three commonly used classifications for hallux rigidus.
Twenty-one plain radiograph sets were presented to ten American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons board-certified foot and ankle surgeons. Each physician classified each radiograph based on clinical experience and knowledge according to the Regnauld, Roukis, and Hattrup and Johnson classification systems. The two-way mixed single-measure consistency intraclass correlation coefficient was used to calculate intrarater and interrater reliabilities.
The mean ± SD intrarater reliability of individual sets for the Roukis (0.62 ± 0.19) and Hattrup and Johnson (0.62 ± 0.28) classification systems was fair to good and for the Regnauld system bordered between fair to good and poor (0.43 ± 0.24). The interrater reliability of the mean classification was excellent for all three classification systems.
Reliable and reproducible classification systems are essential for treatment and prognostic implications in hallux rigidus. Herein, the Roukis classification system had the best intrarater reliability. Although there are various classification systems for hallux rigidus, the present results indicate that the three classification systems evaluated show reliability and reproducibility.
Background: Heel pain, bunion pain, and other forms of foot pain syndromes are one of the more common reasons a patient visits a podiatrist. Numerous methods are currently available to attempt to achieve pain relief, including pharmaceuticals, magnets, heat, and electrical stimulation. A textile company developed Pain Checker socks (Pain Checker Health Wear, Cresskill, New Jersey), which contains a material that may counter the circuit of pain and oppose the effect, thereby stopping the conduction of pain.
Methods: The purpose of this placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of Pain Checker socks in the treatment of mild-to-moderate foot pain. Fifty patients were enrolled, half on active and half on placebo socks. The subjects were evaluated at baseline, 2, 4, and 6 weeks of treatment.
Results: There was no statistically significant difference in disability, pain, or activity scales between treatment groups, although only 5% of the treatment group received no pain relief on visual analog scale during the trial, while 38% of the placebo group received no pain relief.
Conclusion: Although there was no difference in pain relief, the Pain Checker socks were found to be safe and scored high in patient satisfaction. The unique fiber content and construction of the socks may have contributed to the placebo analgesia. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 98(4): 278–282, 2008)
Painful legs and moving toes syndrome is characterized by spontaneous causalgic pain in the lower extremities associated with peculiar involuntary movements of the lower extremities, especially the toes and feet. The pain is diffuse, intractable, aching, and deep. The movements consist of persistent writhing movements in the digits that cannot be limited voluntarily. The syndrome has been observed after a variety of abnormalities affecting the posterior nerve roots, the spinal ganglia, and the peripheral nerves. This article reviews commonly reported findings and current concepts in the etiology and management of this condition. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 91(7): 361-364, 2001)
Many procedures have been described for the resection of plantar calcaneal spurs as treatment of heel spur syndrome and chronic plantar fasciitis. Most of these techniques involve a medial incision of between 2 and 6 cm for adequate exposure of the calcaneal spur. This article describes a new technique for resecting a calcaneal spur with a smaller medial incision using the holmium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Ho:YAG) laser. This laser permits adequate resection of a plantar calcaneal spur as well as coagulation of the bone and surrounding tissues. This minimally invasive procedure has been used with good results over the past year by the senior author (W.K.S.) for the resection of calcaneal spurs. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 91(3): 142-146, 2001)
In a prospective randomized study, we compared two different surgical techniques used in plantar fasciitis surgery.
Forty-eight patients diagnosed as having plantar fasciitis and treated for at least 6 months with no response to conservative modalities were included in this study. The patients were randomly assigned to receive endoscopic plantar fascia release (EPFR) or cryosurgery (CS). Patients were evaluated using the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society Ankle-Hindfoot Scale (AOFAS-AHS) as a primary outcome measurement at baseline and 3 weeks and 3, 6, and 12 months after surgery. At the final follow-up visit, the Roles-Maudsley score was used to determine patient satisfaction.
Five patients did not complete the 1-year follow-up examination (one in the EPFR group and four in the CS group). Thus, the study group included 43 patients. Although both groups showed significant improvement at the final evaluation, the patients in the EPFR group had significantly better AOFAS-AHS scores at 3 months. The success rate (Roles-Maudsley scores of excellent and good) in the EPFR group at 12 months was 87% and in the CS group was 65%.
Both EPFR and CS were associated with statistically significant improvements at 1-year follow-up. At 3-month follow-up, EPFR was associated with better results and a higher patient satisfaction rate compared with CS.
This study evaluated the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of two different types of foot orthoses used to treat plantar heel pain. Forty-eight patients were randomly assigned to receive either a functional or an accommodative orthosis. General (EuroQol) and specific (Foot Health Status Questionnaire) health-status measures were used. Data were also collected using economic questionnaires relating to National Health Service costs for podia-try, other health-service costs, and patient costs. Data were measured at baseline and at 4- and 8-week intervals. Thirty-five patients completed the study. The results demonstrated a significant decrease in foot pain and a significant increase in foot function with the functional foot orthoses over the 8-week trial. The accommodative foot orthoses demonstrated a significant reduction in foot pain only at 4 weeks. The cost-effectiveness analysis demonstrated that functional orthoses, although initially more expensive, result in a better quality of life. Use of functional orthoses resulted in an increased cost of £17.99 ($32.74) per patient, leading to an incremental cost per quality-adjusted life year of £1,650 ($3,003) for functional orthoses. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 94(3): 229–238, 2004)