A talectomy was performed because of Charcot degeneration during recovery from a hallux amputation. The patient was treated conservatively but Charcot degeneration continued, resulting in ulceration and dorsomedial dislocation of the talar head. The patient was hospitalized, and the talectomy was performed. The patient returned to normal activities.
The Boyd amputation is a surgical technique used to treat osteomyelitis of the foot. This amputation is a technically more difficult procedure to perform than the Syme amputation, but it offers certain advantages. The Boyd amputation provides a more solid stump because it preserves the function of the plantar heel pad. Also, because a portion of the calcaneus is left and fused to the tibia, the weightbearing surface is more solid than in the case of a Syme amputation. The authors recommend a Boyd amputation as an alternative to a Syme or a below-the-knee amputation to treat patients with osteomyelitis of the forefoot and midfoot.
Forefoot Ulcer Recurrence Following Partial First Ray Amputation
The Role of Tendo-Achilles Lengthening
We evaluated whether direct or indirect endovascular revascularization based on the angiosome model affects outcomes in type 2 diabetes and critical limb ischemia.
From 2010 to 2015, 603 patients with type 2 diabetes were admitted for critical limb ischemia and submitted to endovascular revascularization. Among these patients, 314 (52%) underwent direct and 123 (20%) indirect revascularization, depending on whether the flow to the artery directly feeding the site of ulceration, according to the angiosome model, was successfully acquired; 166 patients (28%) were judged unable to be revascularized. Outcomes were healing, major amputation, and mortality rates.
An overall healing rate of 62.5% was observed: patients who did not receive percutaneous transluminal angioplasty presented a healing rate of 58.4% (P < .02 versus revascularized patients). A higher healing rate was observed in the direct versus the indirect group (82.4% versus 50.4%; P < .001). The major amputation rate was significantly higher in the indirect versus the direct group (9.2% versus 3.2%; P < .05). The overall mortality rate was 21.6%, and it was higher in the indirect versus the direct group (24% versus 14%; P < .05).
These data show that direct revascularization of arteries supplying the diabetic foot ulcer site by means of the angiosome model is associated with a higher healing rate and lower risk of amputation and death compared with the indirect procedure. These results support use of the angiosome model in type 2 diabetes with critical limb ischemia.
Recurrent ulceration following transmetatarsal amputation commonly results from hypertrophic bone formation or equinus deformity. In the current study, 31 diabetic patients underwent 33 Achilles tendon procedures for recurrent ulcerations at the distal stump of their transmetatarsal amputation. Primary healing was achieved in 21 procedures (64%) and secondary healing in 9 procedures (27%) for an overall healing rate of 91%. Two procedures failed to resolve the original ulceration (6%). The average follow-up examination was 27 months. The authors conclude that Achilles tendon procedures are an effective means of managing ulcerations in transmetatarsal amputation feet exhibiting an equinus deformity.
In March 1949, McKittrick described the use of the transmetatarsal amputation for the diabetic foot, along with specific indications. Infection, ischemia, and neuropathic ulcerations of the toes and forefoot were all treated with this procedure. In the past 30 years, however, advances in the management of these problems have led to a decrease in the number of transmetatarsal amputations performed at the New England Deaconess Hospital. With these advances, the current approach to the transmetatarsal amputation has changed, leading to significant modifications in the basic indications for this procedure.
Background: Along with significant case transmission, hospitalizations, and mortality experienced during the global Sars-CoV-2 (COVID-19) pandemic, there existed a disruption in the delivery of health care across multiple specialties. We studied the effect of the pandemic on inpatients with diabetic foot problems in a level-one trauma center in Central Ohio. Methods: A retrospective chart review of patients necessitating a consultation by the foot and ankle surgery service were reviewed from the first 8 months of 2020. A total of 270 patients met the inclusion criteria and divided into pre-pandemic (n = 120) and pandemic groups (n = 150). Demographics, medical history, severity of current infection, and medical or surgical management were collected and analyzed.Results: The odds of undergoing any level of amputation was 10.8 times higher during the pandemic versus before the pandemic. The risk of major amputations (below-the-knee or higher) likewise increased with an odds ratio of 12.5 among all patients in the foot and ankle service during the pandemic. Of the patients undergoing any amputation, the odds for receiving a major amputation was 3.1 times higher than before the pandemic. Additionally, the severity of infections increased during the pandemic and a larger proportion of the cases were classified as emergent in the pandemic group compared to the pre-pandemic group.Conclusions: The effect of the pandemic on the health-care system has had a deleterious effect on people with diabetes-related foot problems resulting in more severe infections, more emergencies, and necessitating more amputations. When an amputation was performed, the likelihood it was a major amputation also increased.Editor's Note: This Original Article accompanies "Diabetes-Related Amputations: A Pandemic within a Pandemic," by Lee C. Rogers, DPM, Robert J. Snyder, DPM, and Warren S. Joseph, DPM, FIDSA, available at https://doi.org/10.7547/20-248
The purpose of this study was to determine whether Medicare patients at risk for lower-extremity amputation due to complications from diabetes, peripheral vascular disease, and/or gangrene who receive the services classified under Level II code M0101 of the Health Care Financing Administration's Common Procedure Coding System (cutting or removal of corns, calluses, and/or trimming of nails, application of skin creams and other hygienic and preventive maintenance care) have lower rates of lower-extremity amputation than those who do not receive such services. Analysis of the data suggests that those at-risk beneficiaries who received these services were nearly four times less likely to experience lower-extremity amputation than those who did not receive such services. The study has both methodologic limitations (the study considers only one variable, receipt or nonreceipt of certain types of podiatric medical care, while other variables may affect rates of lower-extremity amputation) and technological limitations (attempts to link the 2 years of per case Medicare Part B data were unsuccessful, limiting the length of the study to 1 year). Further research on this topic is encouraged.
Background: The purpose of this retrospective audit was to compare patient based clinical outcomes to amputation healing outcomes twelve months after a minor foot amputation in people with diabetes.
Methods: Hospital admission and community outpatient data were extracted for all minor foot amputations in people with diabetes in 2017 in the Central Coast Local Health District.
Results: A total 85 minor foot amputations involving 74 people were identified. At the twelve-month follow-up 74% (n=56) of the minor foot amputations healed, 63% (n=41) of the participants achieved a good clinical outcome (healed, no more proximal amputations, or death within the 12 month follow up period), and the mortality rate was 18%. Poor clinical outcomes were associated with those aged greater than 60 (RR 5.75, 95% CI: 0.85 to 38.7, p=0.013), those undergoing a further surgical debridement procedure during their hospital stay (RR 2.42, 95% CI: 1.3 to 4.4, p=0.005) and those who did not attend CCLHD Podiatry clinics post-amputation (RR 2.3, 95% CI: 1.2 to 4.1, p=0.010).
Conclusions: To improve patient based clinical outcomes post-minor foot amputation, targeted follow-up in a high-risk foot clinic, and tailored discharge treatment plans for people aged over 60 or those undergoing a debridement procedure may be considered.