Squamous cell carcinoma is a malignant tumor of the squamous epithelium and can occur in many different organs. We present a case of a 61-year-old veteran with metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the bladder with distal metastasis to the middle phalanx of the fourth toe, which is a rare occurrence in the literature. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 99(3): 251–253, 2009)
We report a case of an unusual and unsuspected chronic infection creating a soft-tissue mass in the foot of a 35-year-old woman. The causative agent, Mycobacterium gordonae, is usually encountered as a laboratory contaminant. Only rarely does it manifest as a clinical infection. The patient’s presumed predisposing risk factor was a history of barefoot gardening. An iatrogenic source, corticosteroid injections, was also considered. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 98(4): 311–313, 2008)
Plantar keratodermas can arise due to a variety of genetically inherited mutations. The need to distinguish between different plantar keratoderma disorders is becoming increasingly apparent because there is evidence that they do not respond identically to treatment. Diagnosis can be aided by observation of other clinical manifestations, such as palmar keratoderma, more widespread hyperkeratosis of the epidermis, hair and nail dystrophies, or erythroderma. However, there are frequent cases of plantar keratoderma that occur in isolation. This review focuses on the rare autosomal dominant keratin disorder pachyonychia congenita, which presents with particularly painful plantar keratoderma for which there is no specific treatment. Typically, patients regularly trim/pare/file/grind their calluses and file/grind/clip their nails. Topical agents, including keratolytics (eg, salicylic acid, urea) and moisturizers, can provide limited benefit by softening the skin. For some patients, retinoids help to thin calluses but may lead to increased pain. This finding has stimulated a drive for alternative treatment options, from gene therapy to alternative nongenetic methods that focus on novel findings regarding the pathogenesis of pachyonychia congenita and the function of the underlying genes.
A 13-year-old girl presented to the emergency department in stable condition with a retained penetrating knife wound injury in her right foot. Routine radiographs taken of the foot revealed deep tissue penetration by the knife without frank bony involvement. It was decided to remove the object in the operating room. Simple removal was performed, followed by wound exploration. The patient was admitted to the hospital for one night of observation and then was discharged without further complications.
External thermoregulation using noncontact normothermic wound therapy accelerates wound closure by second intention in areas of existing osteomyelitis before surgical excision compared with standard wound care. This pilot study consisted of two arms. The control arm received standard wound care, which resulted in complete ulcer healing at an average of 127 days. The treatment arm received noncontact normothermic wound therapy, which resulted in complete ulcer healing at an average of 59 days, or 54% faster than in the control arm. This new treatment allows the physician to decrease the rate of limb loss and recurrent osteomyelitis by decreasing the morbidity of bone reinfection through the wound bed. There have been no published studies or case presentations addressing thermoregulation in the management of wounds associated with osteomyelitis. Although noncontact normothermic wound therapy is not a direct treatment for osteomyelitis, this new treatment option results in significantly accelerated healing of wounds associated with osteomyelitis. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 93(1): 18-22, 2003)
Background: Verrucae are caused by infection of epidermal keratinocytes by human papilloma virus (HPV). Although there are currently more than 100 known types of HPV, certain lesions are consistently caused by infection with one or a few types. Recent studies have identified the presence of unusual HPV types in anogenital and cervical condylomata (warts) of patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Although cutaneous verrucae are typically caused by HPV-1, HPV-2, and HPV-4, infection with HIV may predispose an individual to infection with an unusual HPV type.
Methods: We report the detection of a rare HPV type in a clinically aggressive plantar verruca from an HIV-positive patient. The viral DNA from this specimen was analyzed to identify the predominant HPV type. To complete this analysis, HPV DNA was extracted from the formalin-fixed specimen, followed by polymerase chain reaction with consensus HPV primers and digestion with a specific group of restriction endonucleases. The fragments were separated on an agarose gel, and the restriction fragment length polymorphism pattern was compared with known patterns for identification of the specific HPV type.
Results: Identification of HPV-69, an HPV type previously reported to be rare and associated with dysplastic lesions, was confirmed by HPV DNA dot-blot hybridization with specific DNA probes for each known HPV type.
Conclusions: Plantar verrucae in HIV-positive patients may be associated with unusual HPV types and should be analyzed and treated aggressively given the potential for a more distinct clinical manifestation. Additional lesional analysis studies are needed. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 99(1): 8–12, 2009)
Background: Exercise has not been studied extensively in persons with active neuropathic diabetic foot wounds, primarily because a device does not exist that allows patients to exercise while sufficiently off-loading pressure at the ulcer site. The purpose of this project was to demonstrate a device that reduces cycling plantar forefoot pressure.
Methods: Ten healthy participants rode a recumbent bicycle under three cycling conditions. While the left foot interaction remained constant with a standard gym shoe and pedal, the right foot was exposed to a control condition with standard gym shoe and pedal, gym shoe and specialized cleat, and gym shoe with an off-loading insole and specialized cleat. Pressure and contact area of the plantar aspect of the feet were recorded for a 10-sec interval once during each minute of each condition’s 7-min trial.
Results: The off-loading insole and specialized cleat condition yielded significantly lower (P < .01) peak pressure, contact area, and pressure–time integral values in the forefoot than the specialized cleat condition with gym shoe, which yielded significantly lower values (P < .01) than the standard gym shoe and pedal.
Conclusion: Modifications to footwear may alter plantar forefoot pressures, contact area, and pressure–time integrals while cycling. The CLEAR Cleat could play a significant role in the facilitation of fitness in patients with (or at high risk for) neuropathic wounds. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 98(4): 261–267, 2008)
Background: Diabetic foot ulceration is a severe complication of diabetes characterized by chronic inflammation and impaired wound healing. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of a medical device gel based on adelmidrol + trans-traumatic acid in the healing process of diabetic foot ulcers.
Methods: Thirty-seven diabetic patients with foot ulcers of mild/moderate grade were treated with the gel daily for 4 weeks on the affected area. The following parameters were evaluated at baseline and weekly: 1) wound area, measured by drawing a map of the ulcer and then calculated with photo editing software tools, and 2) clinical appearance of the ulcer, assessed by recording the presence/absence of dry/wet necrosis, infection, fibrin, neoepithelium, exudate, redness, and granulation tissue.
Results: Topical treatment led to progressive healing of diabetic foot ulcers with a significant reduction of the wound area and an improvement in the clinical appearance of the ulcers. No treatment-related adverse events were observed.
Conclusions: The results of this open-label study show the potential benefits of adelmidrol + trans-traumatic acid topical administration to promote reepithelialization of diabetic foot ulcers. Further studies are needed to confirm the observed results.
Background: Multiple organizations have issued guidelines to address the prevention, diagnosis, and management of diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs) based on evidence review and expert opinion. We reviewed these guidelines to identify consensus (or lack thereof) on the nature of these recommendations, the strength of the recommendations, and the level of evidence.
Methods: Ovid, PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and Embase were searched in October 2018 using the MESH term diabetic foot, the key word diabetic foot, and the filters guideline or practice guideline. To minimize recommendations based on older literature, guidelines published before 2012 were excluded. Articles without recommendations characterized by strength of recommendation and level of evidence related specifically to DFU were also excluded. A manual search for societal recommendations yielded no further documents. Recommendations were ultimately extracted from 12 articles. Strength of evidence and strength of recommendation were noted for each guideline recommendation using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation system or the Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine system. To address disparate grading systems, we mapped the perceived level of evidence and strength of recommendations onto the American Heart Association guideline classification schema.
Results: Recommendations found in two or more guidelines were collected into a clinical checklist characterized by strength of evidence and strength of recommendation. Areas for future research were identified among recommendations based on minimal evidence, areas of controversy, or areas of clinical care without recommendations.
Conclusions: Through this work we developed a multidisciplinary set of DFU guidelines stratified by strength of recommendation and quality of evidence, created a clinical checklist for busy practitioners, and identified areas for future focused research. This work should be of value to clinicians, guideline-issuing bodies, and researchers. We also formulated a method for the review and integration of guidelines issued by multiple professional bodies.
Foot complications are common in diabetic patients; foot ulcers are among the more serious consequences. These ulcers frequently become infected, and if not treated promptly and appropriately, diabetic foot infections can lead to septic gangrene and amputation. Foot infections may be classified as mild, moderate, or severe; this largely determines the approach to therapy. Staphylococcus aureus is the most common pathogen in these infections, and the increasing incidence of methicillin-resistant S aureus during the past two decades has further complicated antibiotic treatment. Chronic infections are often polymicrobial. Physiologic changes, and local and systemic inflammation, can affect the plasma and tissue pharmacokinetics of antimicrobial agents in diabetic patients, leading to impaired target-site penetration. Knowledge of the serum and tissue concentrations of antibiotics in diabetic patients is, therefore, important for choosing the optimal drug and dose. This article reviews the commonly used therapeutic options for treatment, including many newer antibiotics developed to target multidrug-resistant gram-positive bacteria, and includes available data relating specifically to the tissue penetration of these agents. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 100(1): 52–63, 2010)