The authors review various pedal conditions affecting the rearfoot, including plantar fasciitis, Achilles tendon pathology, fractures, arthritides, coalitions, and tumors. Various diagnostic imaging modalities such as routine radiography, radionuclide bone scanning, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging are discussed.
A 16-month-old male with previously untreated bilateral clubfeet was admitted to S.B. Izmir Tepecik Education and Research Hospital, Izmir, Turkey. Both feet underwent surgical treatment. During surgery, an accessory soleus muscle was detected on the right side. The accessory soleus muscle had a distinct distal insertion at the superior anteromedial border of the calcaneus and also anterior and medial to the Achilles tendon. He was treated by bilateral complete subtalar release with Cincinnati incision, and the accessory soleus was also cut and the distal part resected. At the final follow-up visit, when the patient was 6 years and 9 months old, both feet had a normal appearance and appeared normal on radiograph and magnetic resonance imaging, with no presence of the accessory soleus muscle or its remnant. In our opinion, awareness of the association between an accessory soleus muscle and clubfoot, and sectioning of this muscle during surgery may improve surgical results. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 98(5): 408–413, 2008)
Background: This retrospective study of a case series analyzed the results from the application of a distally based adipofascial sural flap for nonweightbearing defects of the foot and ankle.
Methods: Twenty-eight patients with post-traumatic ankle and foot defects (ten women and 18 men; age range, 17–63 years) underwent surgery between November 1, 2003, and November 30, 2008. Distally based adipofascial sural flaps were used in ten open fractures, 14 soft-tissue post-traumatic defects, and four deep burns. Defects were on the dorsal side of the foot (eight cases), the lateral malleolus (four cases), the medial malleolus and inframalleolar region (four cases), the Achilles tendon region (eight cases), and the anterior surface of the ankle (four cases). Surgical procedures were performed by a single surgeon (A.M.).
Results: All of the flaps healed uneventfully. There was no partial or total flap loss. All 28 patients walked normally at the time of follow-up. Three delayed healings occurred at the donor site.
Conclusions: This is a homogeneous series of lower-limb reconstructions with the distally based adipofascial sural flap, which permits better analysis of the results. This flap has a constant and reliable blood supply. It can be used for the reconstruction of nonweightbearing foot and ankle regions to avoid the bulky volume of the fasciocutaneous flap in this area and to minimize the donor site scar. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 101(1): 41–48, 2011)
Background: There is a paucity of literature regarding rock climbing footwear. Rock climbers anecdotally voice numerous complaints regarding their current footwear. In an effort to improve existing rock-climbing footwear, implementation of a survey tool assessing the attitudes and practices of rock climbers was undertaken.
Methods: A Web-based survey was developed to assess the demographics, attitudes, and practices of individuals active in rock climbing, with a focus on footwear.
Results: Forty-five of the 417 respondents were male and 55% were female. The average years climbing was 7, with a majority of respondents in the 18- to 34-year-old category. The majority climbed 5 to 10 hours/week. Eighty percent identified as intermediate or advanced climbers. Climbing shoes were an average of 0.83 size smaller than the climber’s street shoes. The more elite the climber, the greater the mismatch. Overall satisfaction with current rock-climbing shoes was 88%; however, as the age of climber and number of years of participation increased, the level of satisfaction decreased. The most frequently reported problems with shoes included inconsistent sizing between brands and poor heel fit. The most commonly reported locations of pain were the toes and heel.
Conclusions: The authors concluded the following: 1) a surprisingly high satisfaction with current rock-climbing shoes was reported; 2) the difference in size between climbing shoes and street shoes was less than expected; 3) more shoe fitting problems were experienced by those with the most experience in climbing and those who spend the most time climbing; 4) the most common locations for experiencing pain were the toes and the posterior heel or Achilles tendon; 5) higher than expected satisfaction levels with climbing shoes contrasted with the very high number of specific complaints and recommendations for improvement; and 6) because of the increasing popularity of rock climbing, foot care providers should learn about the various types of climbing and the shoe gear needs that result therefrom.
Recurrent ulceration following transmetatarsal amputation commonly results from hypertrophic bone formation or equinus deformity. In the current study, 31 diabetic patients underwent 33 Achilles tendon procedures for recurrent ulcerations at the distal stump of their transmetatarsal amputation. Primary healing was achieved in 21 procedures (64%) and secondary healing in 9 procedures (27%) for an overall healing rate of 91%. Two procedures failed to resolve the original ulceration (6%). The average follow-up examination was 27 months. The authors conclude that Achilles tendon procedures are an effective means of managing ulcerations in transmetatarsal amputation feet exhibiting an equinus deformity.
Ankle equinus is a well-known clinical entity that has previously been shown to compound a variety of foot and ankle conditions. Treatments for this disorder have included surgery to lengthen the Achilles tendon and daily stretching. This article describes a method of manual manipulation that can immediately and substantially increase ankle joint dorsiflexion. Patients treated with manipulation in the current study demonstrated nearly twice as much dorsiflexion motion as that demonstrated by patients in a prior study who were treated with a 5-minute daily stretching program for 6 months.
The history and prosthetic difficulties of a patient with an unusual Chopart amputation variant have been presented. Although it is possible for the Chopart amputee to walk with just a shoe and filler, this patient does best with a formal prosthesis. The Chopart amputation, which has been surgically stabilized with Achilles tendon lengthening to prevent equinus contractures, can be fitted successfully with a lightweight circumferential plastic or silicone prosthesis or more traditionally with a solid ankle foot orthosis with filler. This partial foot prosthesis is worn with a sturdy shoe with a rocker and solid ankle cushion heel or a well constructed running shoe. The Chopart amputee with equinus contractures must be fitted with a Chopart clamshell prosthesis or solid ankle patellar tendon bearing orthosis with filler and the above shoe prescription. Recent variants of the partial foot prosthesis including the Imler partial foot prosthesis, the Lange silicone prosthesis, and the ankle corset prosthesis were described.
Locally injected steroids are used to treat inflammatory conditions, in spite of the complications associated with their use. Ketorolac tromethamine, an injectable nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, has not previously been evaluated for treatment of musculoskeletal inflammatory conditions via local administration. Eighty Achilles tendons of rabbits were traumatized in a controlled fashion. At the time of trauma, a single dose of ketorolac (1, 3, or 5 mg/kg) or normal saline was administered peritendinously. Three days later, the tendons were harvested and examined histologically to evaluate the degree of inflammation present in the tissue. No statistically significant difference was found between the experimental and control groups. The authors conclude that locally injected ketorolac does not prevent the onset of an inflammatory process.
Orthotic management is helpful in the treatment of most orthopedic conditions involving the rearfoot, including plantar fasciitis, Achilles tendon disorders, posterior tibial tendon dysfunction, flatfoot, ankle sprains, and problems associated with diabetes, arthritis, and equinus disorders. A review of the effectiveness of orthoses in the treatment of these conditions is presented here. An in-depth analysis of the orthotic management of plantar fasciitis and a critical review of foot orthoses for the pronated foot are presented. Also discussed are the rationale and effectiveness of the tension night splint in the treatment of plantar fasciitis, orthotic devices for the different stages of posterior tibial tendon dysfunction, and the various categories of orthoses for off-loading the diabetic foot. The modern ankle brace, the effectiveness of prefabricated versus prescription foot orthoses, and recent developments in the ankle-foot orthosis are also reviewed.
A retrospective study was conducted on the use of the ROC (Radial Osteo Compression) soft-tissue anchor in foot and ankle surgery. This article describes how the anchor is deployed, problematic aspects of using the anchor, and complications and success rates associated with the anchor in ankle stabilizations, posterior tibial tendon reconstruction, peroneus brevis tendon reconstruction after fracture of the base of the fifth metatarsal, and detachment and reattachment of the Achilles tendon. The ROC anchor consists of the anchor with nonabsorbable suture attached to the shaft, the deployment handle, and drill bits. The anchor and shaft are snapped into the deployment handle and inserted into the drill hole. Compression of the trigger deploys the anchor into the hole. The ROC anchor was found to be reliable, useful, and relatively easy to deploy, with outcomes similar to those of other soft-tissue anchors.