Erythrasma is a superficial skin infection caused by Corynebacterium minutissimum. Interdigital erythrasma is the most common form and is easily confused with tinea pedis. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of interdigital erythrasma in patients with clinically suspected tinea pedis.
This study was performed between January 1, 2011, and January 31, 2012. It included 182 patients who presented with concerns about interdigital lesions. All of the patients were examined with a Wood's lamp, and smears were stained with Gram's method. Direct examination with 20% potassium hydroxide was performed.
Of 182 patients with interdigital lesions, 73 (40.1%) were diagnosed as having erythrasma. The mean ± SD age of the patients with erythrasma was 45.52 ± 10.83 years (range, 22–70 years). Most of the patients with erythrasma were women (56.2%). The most often clinical finding was desquamation. Using only Wood's lamp examination or Gram's staining resulted in 31 (42.5%) or 14 (19.2%) positive patients, respectively. Using Wood's lamp examination and Gram's staining concurrently resulted in 28 positive patients (38.4%).
Interdigital erythrasma is a common condition and can be difficult to differentiate from tinea pedis. Simple and rapid diagnosis can be made with Wood's lamp examination, but Gram's staining is also a useful method, especially in patients with negative Wood's lamp examination findings.
Infected ingrown toenails raise the question of how much nail should be removed and what amount of nail fold reduction should occur. Often, the ungual labia folds are found to be hypertrophic, forcing the nail to push into the flesh and start a foreign body reaction. A simplified approach to this problem is proposed on the basis of the measurement of 100 normal nail folds and 25 infected nail folds. The results of this study show that the treatment goal should be to achieve an ungual labia fold of less than 3 mm, concluding that there is a correlation between the depth of the ungual labia fold and the severity of the infected ingrown toenail. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 92(3): 131-135, 2002)
The relationship between hyperglycemia and adverse outcomes after surgery has been widely documented. Long-term glucose control has been recognized as a risk factor for postoperative complications. In the foot and ankle literature, long-term glycemic control as a potential perioperative risk factor is not well studied. Our goal was to investigate whether hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) level was independently associated with postoperative complications in a retrospective cohort study.
Three hundred twenty-two patients with a diagnosis of diabetes mellitus were enrolled in the study to assess risk factors associated with postoperative foot and ankle surgery complications.
Bivariate analyses showed that HbA1c level and having at least one comorbidity were associated with postoperative infections. However, after adjusting for other covariates, the only significant factor was HbA1c level, with each increment of 1% increasing the odds of infection by a factor of 1.59 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.28–1.99). For postoperative wound-healing complications, bivariate analyses showed that body mass index, having at least one comorbidity, and HbA1c level were significant factors. After adjusting for other covariates, the only significant factors for developing postoperative wound complications were having at least one comorbidity (odds ratio, 2.03; 95% CI, 1.22–3.37) and HbA1c level (each 1% increment) (odds ratio, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.02–1.53).
In this retrospective study, HbA1c level had the strongest association with postoperative foot and ankle surgery complications in patients with diabetes.
External fixation was used to reduce or arrest progressive degeneration in 28 patients with Charcot’s foot dislocations. Adjunctive procedures included tendo Achilles lengthening and application of an external bone stimulator. Advantages of using external fixation are that surgeries are usually performed percutaneously and that most patients are weightbearing in 10 to 14 days. There was no incidence of pin tract infection or further foot collapse, with the longest follow-up period being 24 months. The authors propose that use of external fixation with bone stimulation may be an effective alternative method of treating the Charcot foot. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 92(8): 429-436, 2002)
A Pragmatic, Single-Center, Prospective, Randomized Controlled Trial of Adjunct Hemoglobin-Mediated Granulox Topical Oxygen Therapy Twice Weekly for Foot Ulcers
Results of the Hemoglobin Application to Wounds Study
Achieving timely healing of foot ulcers can help avoid complications such as infection and amputation; topical oxygen therapy has shown promise in achieving this. We evaluated the clinical effectiveness of Granulox, a hemoglobin spray device designed to deliver oxygen to the surface of wounds, for the healing of foot ulcers.
We conducted a single-center, prospective, randomized controlled trial comparing standard of care (once-weekly podiatric medical clinic visits) versus standard care plus adjunct Granulox therapy twice weekly in adults with foot ulcers. After a 2-week screening phase, patients in whom the index wound had healed by less than 50% were randomized 1:1. Outcome measures were collated during the trial phase at 6 and 12 weeks.
Of 79 patients enrolled, 38 were randomized. After 12 weeks, the median percentage wound size reduction compared with the size of the ulcer at the start of the trial phase was 100% for the control arm and 48% for the Granulox arm (P = .21, Mann-Whitney U test). In the former, eight of 14 foot ulcers had healed; in the latter, four of 15 (P = .14, Fisher exact test). In the control arm, two amputations and one withdrawal occurred, whereas in the Granulox arm, one unrelated death and five withdrawals were recorded.
We could not replicate the favorable healing associated with use of Granulox as published by others. Differences in wound chronicity and frequency of Granulox application might have influenced differences in study results. Granulox might perform best when used as an adjunct for treatment of chronic wounds at least 8 weeks old.
Background: The purpose of this study was to ascertain public perception of the terms podiatry and DPM.
Methods: We distributed a survey to 847 people in ten states across the United States. It was hypothesized that most respondents would be less familiar with the DPM degree than the term podiatrist. It was also expected that people would choose MD over DPM for more complex procedures.
Results: The majority of respondents selected a podiatrist and a DPM as a foot specialist, almost one-half selected DPM for foot surgery, but only one-third stated they would have foot surgery done by a DPM if they had a heart problem. In addition, it was hypothesized that respondents would choose the contrived PMD over DPM simply because PMD looks more like MD; this was not shown to be true.
Conclusions: Although there are gaps in the public knowledge, our study revealed a greater familiarity with podiatry and the DPM degree than originally thought. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 99(3): 223–231, 2009)
Verrucae plantaris is a viral disease caused by human papilloma virus that is commonly seen in the office setting and is often challenging to treat owing to its high recurrence rate and recalcitrant profile. Candida albicans intralesional injections have been hypothesized to incite an immunogenic response toward the virus.
We report on the immunotherapeutic effect of intralesional injection of C albicans into plantar verrucae with a retrospective medical record analysis of 80 patients. Using a luer-lock syringe, 0.1 to 0.3 mL of C albicans antigen was injected into either the first known lesion or the largest lesion.
The success rate of intralesional C albicans, defined as total clearance of the lesion, was 65%, which may be underestimated because patients lost to follow-up were included in the 35% failure rate. It was also found that female patients with a previous tissue-destructive treatment process were more than four times more likely to respond to C albicans therapy, whereas this effect was less pronounced in the male patient population.
These results indicate that a series of intralesional injections of C albicans is an effective and efficient method of treatment for verrucae plantaris.
Surgical Treatment of Pressure Ulcers of the Heel in Skilled Nursing Facilities
A 12-Year Retrospective Study of 57 Patients
Background: Chronic nonhealing pressure ulcers of the heel in nursing homes are frequent occurrences among bedridden patients with lower-extremity contractures of varying degrees of severity. Conservative local wound care for these patients can be time consuming, ineffective, costly, and may only delay an eventual major leg amputation. This study evaluates the efficacy of limb salvage surgical procedures, partial calcanectomy, total calcanectomy, and excision of the entire calcaneus and talus, for heel ulcers.
Methods: We performed a retrospective review of 57 nursing home residents who had chronic infected nonhealing pressure ulcers of the heel that we had treated over 12 years. Forty-three patients underwent partial calcanectomy, nine underwent total calcanectomy, and five underwent excision of the entire calcaneus and talus. Average postoperative follow-up was 15 months. Also included in this study are representative surgical cases.
Results: Forty-three patients completed follow-up. Complete healing occurred in 25 patients (58%). Failure to resolve the heel ulcer owing to persistent infection, or recurrence was seen in 18 patients (42%) who eventually had a below-the-knee or above-the-knee amputation. All of the patients with heel pressure ulcers were found to have lower-extremity contractures.
Conclusions: In the nonambulatory contracted patient with a heel ulcer, partial or total calcanectomy or excision of the entire calcaneus and talus offer a viable alternative not only for resolution of infection but also for prevention of limb loss. An aggressive plan must also be instituted to address the lower-extremity contractures in order to prevent recurrence. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 101(2): 167–175, 2011)
Although effective, oral antifungal therapy is still not completely successful. Recent studies have shown that combination therapy with oral and topical agents offers an increased cure rate for patients. We review the main drug combinations that have been tested. Additional measures, such as mechanical intervention, may help improve response rates further. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 96(2): 116–119, 2006)
Scarf Osteotomy for Hallux Valgus Deformity
A Prospective Study with 8 Years of Clinical and Radiologic Follow-up
Background: Scarf midshaft metatarsal osteotomy has become increasingly popular as a treatment option for moderate-to-severe hallux valgus deformities because of its great versatility. Numerous studies on Scarf osteotomy have been published. However, no prospective studies were available until 2002. Since then, only short-term follow-up prospective studies have been published. We present the results of a prospective study of 21 patients treated by Scarf osteotomy for hallux valgus with follow-up of 8 years.
Methods: Between August 1, 1999, and October 31, 1999, 23 patients (23 feet) with moderate-to-severe hallux valgus deformity were included. Clinical (American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society score) and radiologic (hallux valgus angle, first intermetatarsal angle, and sesamoid position) evaluations were performed preoperatively and 1 and 8 years postoperatively.
Results: Clinical evaluation showed a significant improvement in the mean forefoot score from 47 to 83 (of a possible 100) at 1 year (P < .001). Radiographic evaluation showed significant improvement in the hallux valgus angle (mean improvement, 19°; P < .001) and in the intermetatarsal angle (mean improvement, 6°; P < .001). These clinical and radiographic results were maintained at the final evaluation 8 years postoperatively.
Conclusions: Scarf osteotomy tends to provide predictable and sustainable correction of moderate-to-severe hallux valgus deformities. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 100(1): 35–40, 2010)