Traumatic ankle conditions can lead to long-term sequelae if a pathologic process is misdiagnosed. The clinical presentation of an osteochondral lesion of the talar dome requires the clinician to have a high index of suspicion, and advanced imaging is often necessary to make the final diagnosis. Treatment should be initiated once the lesion is appropriately staged by radiologic or magnetic resonance imaging. We discuss the use of arthroscopy-assisted retrograde drilling of the medial talar dome that spares the articular cartilage within the talotibial articulation. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 95(1): 91–96, 2005)
This article describes the treatment of lower-extremity wounds, specifically foot and ankle ulcerations, in the context of reimbursement for treatments rendered. Therefore, such issues as standard of care, documentation, classification of foot wounds, coding, and reimbursement are discussed. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 92(1): 54-58, 2002)
Objective: To investigate the predictive value of erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and C-reactive protein (CRP) in persons with and without diabetes with osteomyelitis (OM).
Methods: We evaluated 455 patients in a retrospective cohort study of patients admitted to the hospital with diabetic foot OM (n = 177), diabetic foot soft-tissue infections (STIs) (n = 176), nondiabetic OM (n = 51), and nondiabetic STIs (n = 51). Infection diagnosis was determined through bone culture, histopathologic examination for OM, and/or imaging (magnetic resonance imaging/single-photon emission computed tomography) for STI. The optimal cutoff values of ESR and CRP in predicting OM were determined by receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and positive and negative likelihood ratios were determined through contingency tables.
Results: In persons without diabetes with STI or OM, the mean ESR and CRP differences were 10.0 mm/h and 2.6 mg/dL, respectively. In contrast, persons with diabetes had higher levels of each: 24.8 mm/h and 6.8 mg/dL, respectively. As a result, ESR and CRP predicted OM better in patients with diabetes. However, when patients were stratified by neuropathy status, ESR remained predictive of OM in diabetic patients with neuropathy (75% sensitivity, 58% specificity) but not in diabetic patients without neuropathy (50% sensitivity, 44% specificity). Also, CRP remained predictive irrespective of neuropathy status. A similar trend was observed in patients without diabetes.
Conclusions: Previous studies have reported that ESR and CRP are predictive of OM. However, this study suggests that neuropathy influences the predictive value of inflammatory biomarkers. The underlying mechanisms require further study.
No detailed comparative studies have been performed regarding plantar pressure changes between proximal dome and distal chevron osteotomies. This study aimed to compare radiographic and plantar pressure changes after distal chevron and proximal dome osteotomies and to investigate the effect of radiographic and plantar pressure changes on clinical outcomes.
This study included 26 and 22 patients who underwent distal chevron and proximal dome osteotomies, respectively. Visual analog scale (VAS) and American Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Society (AOFAS) forefoot scores were used to evaluate pain and functional outcomes. Hallux valgus angle, intermetatarsal angle, talar–first metatarsal angle, and calcaneal inclination angle were measured in the evaluation of radiographic outcomes. Preoperative and postoperative plantar pressure changes were evaluated.
There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups in age, body mass index, or AOFAS forefoot and VAS scores. In the proximal dome group, the pressure measurement showed significant lateralization of the maximal anterior pressure point in the forefoot (P < .001). In addition, the postoperative calcaneal inclination angle was significantly lower (P = .004) and the talar–first metatarsal angle was significantly higher (P < .001) in the proximal dome group. Postoperative transfer metatarsalgia was observed in one patient (3.8%) in the distal chevron group and five (22.7%) in the proximal dome group (P < .05).
Proximal dome osteotomy led to more lateralization of the maximum anterior pressure point, decreased calcaneal inclination angle and first metatarsal elevation, and related higher transfer metatarsalgia.
Background: To compare pathogens involved in skin and soft-tissue infections (SSTIs) and pedal osteomyelitis (OM) in patients with and without diabetes with puncture wounds to the foot.
Methods: We evaluated 113 consecutive patients between June 1, 2011, and March 31, 2019, with foot infection (SSTIs and OM) from a puncture injury sustained to the foot. Eighty-three patients had diabetes and 30 did not. We evaluated the bacterial pathogens in patients with SSTIs and pedal OM.
Results: Polymicrobial infections were more common in patients with diabetes mellitus (83.1% versus 53.3%; P = .001). The most common pathogen for SSTIs and OM in patients with diabetes was Staphylococcus aureus (SSTIs, 50.7%; OM, 32.3%), whereas in patients without diabetes it was Pseudomonas (25%) for SSTIs. Anaerobes (9.4%) and fungal infection (3.1%) were uncommon. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was identified in only 5.8% of people with diabetes.
Conclusions: The most common bacterial pathogen in both SSTIs and pedal OM was S aureus in patients with diabetes. Pseudomonas species was the most common pathogen in people without diabetes with SSTIs.
Background: Although tarsal coalition represents the most common cause of peroneal spastic flatfoot, its existence cannot be verified in several cases. In some patients with rigid flatfoot, no cause can be detected after clinical, laboratory, and radiologic examination, and the condition is called idiopathic peroneal spastic flatfoot (IPSF). This study aimed to present our experience with surgical management and outcomes in patients with IPSF.
Methods: Seven patients with IPSF, who were operated on between 2016 and 2019, and followed for at least 12 months were included, whereas those with known causes, such as tarsal coalition or other causes (eg, traumatic) were excluded. All patients were followed up for 3 months with botulinum toxin injection and cast immobilization as a routine protocol, and clinical improvement was not achieved. The Evans procedure and grafting with tricortical iliac crest bone graft in five patients and subtalar arthrodesis in two patients were performed. The American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society ankle-hindfoot scale scores and Foot and Ankle Disability Index scores were obtained preoperatively and postoperatively from all patients.
Results: On physical examination, all feet manifested rigid pes planus with varying degrees of hindfoot valgus and limited subtalar motion. Overall, the mean American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society and Foot and Ankle Disability Index scores significantly increased from 42 (range, 20–76) and 45 (range, 19–68) preoperatively (P = .018) to 85 (range, 67–97) and 84 (range, 67–99) (P = .043) at the final follow-up, respectively. No major intraoperative or postoperative complications were observed in any of the patients. All computed tomographic and magnetic resonance imaging scans revealed no evidence of tarsal coalitions in any of the feet. All radiologic workups failed to demonstrate secondary signs of fibrous or cartilaginous coalitions.
Conclusions: Operative treatment seems to be a good option in the treatment of patients with IPSF who do not benefit from conservative treatment. In the future, it is recommended to investigate the ideal treatment options for this group of patients.
Therapeutic Options for Diabetic Foot Infections
A Review with an Emphasis on Tissue Penetration Characteristics
Foot complications are common in diabetic patients; foot ulcers are among the more serious consequences. These ulcers frequently become infected, and if not treated promptly and appropriately, diabetic foot infections can lead to septic gangrene and amputation. Foot infections may be classified as mild, moderate, or severe; this largely determines the approach to therapy. Staphylococcus aureus is the most common pathogen in these infections, and the increasing incidence of methicillin-resistant S aureus during the past two decades has further complicated antibiotic treatment. Chronic infections are often polymicrobial. Physiologic changes, and local and systemic inflammation, can affect the plasma and tissue pharmacokinetics of antimicrobial agents in diabetic patients, leading to impaired target-site penetration. Knowledge of the serum and tissue concentrations of antibiotics in diabetic patients is, therefore, important for choosing the optimal drug and dose. This article reviews the commonly used therapeutic options for treatment, including many newer antibiotics developed to target multidrug-resistant gram-positive bacteria, and includes available data relating specifically to the tissue penetration of these agents. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 100(1): 52–63, 2010)
Diabetic foot ulcer (DFU) is a serious health problem. Major amputation increases the risk of mortality in patients with DFU; therefore, treatment methods other than major amputation come to the fore for these patients. Graft applications create an appropriate environment for the reproduction of epithelial cells. Similarly, epidermal growth factor (EGF) also stimulates epithelization and increases epidermis formation. In this study, we aimed to compare patients with DFU treated with EGF and those treated with a split-thickness skin graft.
Patients who were treated for DFU in the general surgery clinic were included in the study. The patients were evaluated retrospectively according to their demographic characteristics, wound characteristics, duration of treatment, and treatment modalities.
There were 26 patients in the EGF group and 21 patients in the graft group. The mean duration of treatment was 7 weeks (4-8 weeks) in the EGF group and 5.3 weeks (4-8 weeks) in the graft group (P < .05). In the EGF group, wound healing could not be achieved in one patient during the study period. In the graft group, no recovery was achieved in three patients (14.2%) in the donor site. Graft loss was detected in four patients (19%), and partial graft loss was observed in three patients (14.2%). The DFU of these patients were on the soles (85.7%). These patients have multiple comorbidities.
EGF application may be preferred to avoid graft complications in the graft area and the donor site, especially in elderly patients with multiple comorbidities and wounds on the soles.