The accessory navicular bone (ANB) is one of the most common accessory ossicles of the foot. Fewer than 1% of ANBs are symptomatic, and most of the symptomatic ANBs are type II ANBs. Avascular necrosis of the type II ANB is an uncommon cause of symptomatic accessory navicular syndrome and also a rarely reported condition in the podiatric medical literature. This rare disorder must be distinguished from other painful conditions of the ANB and should be considered in differential diagnoses. We present a case of avascular necrosis of the type II ANB with sclerosis on radiographs and magnetic resonance images in a 46-year-old woman.
Lesser metatarsal sesamoids are one of the most common accessory bones of the foot and are most commonly seen at the fifth metatarsophalangeal joint. They are rarely seen in other metatarsophalangeal joints. In the literature, there are reports of solitary accessory sesamoid bones seen at lesser metatarsophalangeal joints. We report the case of a 68-year-old woman with lesser metatarsal sesamoids accompanying all of the metatarsophalangeal joints.
Human amniotic membrane contains growth factors and cytokines that promote epithelial cell migration and proliferation, stimulate metabolic processes that lead to collagen synthesis, and attract fibroblasts, while also reducing pain and inflammation. Randomized studies have shown effectiveness of micronized dehydrated human amnion/chorion membrane (mdHACM) allograft injection in treatment of plantar fasciitis. We present our experience and short-term outcomes with using mdHACM injection as a treatment for Achilles tendinopathy.
Retrospective case series of patients with Achilles tendinopathy treated with mdHACM by a single physician. Participants had at least two follow-up visits within 45 days of mdHACM injection. Outcomes examined included change in reported level of pain during the 45-day observation period and treatment-associated adverse events.
Follow-up data were available for 32 mdHACM-treated patients. At treatment initiation, 97% of patients reported severe (66%) or moderate (31%) pain. At the first follow-up visit (mean ± SD of 8.1 ± 2.7 days postinjection), 27 patients (84%) reported improvement in pain levels, although 37% of patients continued to report severe (6%) or moderate (31%) pain. At the second follow-up visit (mean ± SD of 23.1 ± 6.2 days postinjection), no patients reported severe pain and one reported moderate pain. Within 45 days of mdHACM injection, complete symptom resolution was reported by 66% of treated patients (n = 21), with the remaining 34% (n = 11) reporting symptom improvement but not complete resolution. Two patients reported calf or quadricep pain or tightness after injection.
In our experience, mdHACM injection reduced or eliminated pain in all 32 patients with follow-up data.
External fixation was used to reduce or arrest progressive degeneration in 28 patients with Charcot’s foot dislocations. Adjunctive procedures included tendo Achilles lengthening and application of an external bone stimulator. Advantages of using external fixation are that surgeries are usually performed percutaneously and that most patients are weightbearing in 10 to 14 days. There was no incidence of pin tract infection or further foot collapse, with the longest follow-up period being 24 months. The authors propose that use of external fixation with bone stimulation may be an effective alternative method of treating the Charcot foot. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 92(8): 429-436, 2002)
We compared the long-term clinical and ultrasonographic effects of radial extracorporeal shockwave therapy (rESWT) versus ultrasound-guided corticosteroid injection treatment in patients with plantar fasciitis unresponsive to conservative therapy.
Seventy-two patients with unilateral plantar fasciitis were randomized to receive either rESWT (three times once per week) (n = 36) or corticosteroid treatment (a single 1-mL dose of betamethasone sodium plus 0.5 mL of prilocaine under ultrasound guidance by injection into the plantar fascia) (n = 36). The primary outcome measures were visual analog scale (VAS) and Foot Function Index (FFI) scores. Secondary outcome measures included the heel tenderness index (HTI) score and plantar fascia thickness (PFT) as obtained by ultrasound examination. All of the assessments were performed at baseline and 1, 3, and 6 months after treatment.
Significant improvements were observed in the rESWT group in VAS, HTI, and FFI scores and PFT at the end of treatment and were maintained during follow-up. Posttreatment improvements in VAS, HTI, and FFI scores and PFT were also seen in the corticosteroid group but were not maintained for VAS and FFI scores after the completion of therapy and were lost at 1 and 6 months, respectively. No serious treatment-related complications occurred.
Both rESWT and corticosteroid injection therapy are effective modalities for treatment of chronic plantar fasciitis. However, rESWT seems to be superior to corticosteroid injection therapy due to its longer duration of action.
The aim of this study was to determine the quality of life in patients living with hallux abducto valgus deformity before and after a taping technique.
This study used a time series, quasi-experimental, same-subject design. Thirty-five patients with hallux abducto valgus were recruited in this study. Nonelastic zinc oxide tape was applied for 4 weeks. The Foot Health Status Questionnaire was used to assess the quality of life of participants before and after the intervention. The paired samples t test was used to test for statistical significance at the 95% confidence level.
In this study, a statistical reduction was seen in foot pain, foot function, and general foot health (P < .0001) after applying the nonelastic zinc oxide tape for 10 hours daily for 4 weeks. No statistically significant difference was found in the remaining domains of the Foot Health Status Questionnaire, although a difference in mean scores was observed.
Treatment with nonelastic zinc oxide tape led to improved management of hallux abducto valgus and better quality of life; it is a safe, easy-to-use method with minimal adverse effects. Future studies should evaluate this method using larger sample groups and longer treatment periods while comparing this method with alternative treatment approaches, such as exercise or orthotic devices.
Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the results of high-dose extracorporeal shockwave therapy applied with an ankle block and corticosteroid injection in patients with plantar fasciitis whose symptoms persisted for more than 6 months.
Methods: Sixty patients were assessed clinically at presentation and at 3-month follow-up with a patient-assessed 100-mm visual analog scale of pain and a physician-assessed heel tenderness index. A therapeutic response rate was evaluated. A decrease of at least 50% from baseline to 3 months in visual analog scale or heel tenderness index scores was accepted as a successful result.
Results: Extracorporeal shockwave therapy and corticosteroid injection provided significant improvements in visual analog scale and heel tenderness index scores, but between the two groups there was no significant difference in the visual analog scale score change 3 months after treatment (P > .05). Twenty-seven of 33 patients (82%) in the extracorporeal shockwave therapy group and 23 of 27 (85%) in the corticosteroid injection group had a successful therapeutic response after 3 months.
Conclusions: Corticosteroid injection and extracorporeal shockwave therapy are successful treatment modalities for plantar fasciitis. Corticosteroid injection treatment is cost effective compared with extracorporeal shockwave therapy, and corticosteroid injection may be the first treatment choice according to these results. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 100(2): 105–110, 2010)
Medial malleolar stress fractures are relatively uncommon injuries that can be quite debilitating and disabling. This article discusses the symptoms, diagnostic aids, pathomechanics, and management of medial malleolar stress fractures. Using three cases, the authors illustrate nonoperative versus operative treatments in an athlete and the influence of an in-season versus an off-season injury. A percutaneous cannulated screw fixation procedure is described that allowed an athlete to return to competition 24 days after sustaining a displaced medial malleolar stress fracture. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 93(4): 292-297, 2003)