This retrospective study reviewed the culture results of 112 admissions to a multidisciplinary diabetic foot care team with a primary diagnosis of infected diabetic pedal ulceration. An average of 1.5 +/- 0.9 species per patient (P < 0.0001) were isolated. Eighty-nine percent of wounds cultured grew two or fewer organisms. Anaerobic species were isolated in only 5% of all cultures. Of these isolates, the distinction between anaerobic colonization and true anaerobic infection is made. Results suggest that aggressive early hospitalization, coupled with aggressive intraoperative debridement, may yield less microbiologically complex infections that may be controlled with less expensive narrow spectrum antibiotic therapy. Diagnosis of the infected pedal ulceration of a patient with diabetes is a clinical one. If this diagnosis is combined with appropriate surgical intervention, microbiologic correlation, and antimicrobial therapy, the result may be a less complex hospital course and improved outcome.
In the case reported, M. fortuitum was sensitive in vitro to amikacin, erythromycin, tobramycin, and ciprofloxacin. Because the patient did not respond to long-term therapy with amikacin and erythromycin, an experimental antibiotic, ciprofloxacin, was tried. Only after extensive surgical debridement and 2 1/2 months of oral ciprofloxacin therapy was the infection eradicated and wound healing obtained. The authors conclude that a wound that has reopened, but remains indolent, exudes a clear, serous drainage and responds poorly to antibiotics should suggest a possible mycobacterial infection. Combination antibiotic therapy is recommended because of the high rate of relapse and development of resistance to drugs. Extensive surgical debridement of all infected tissue remains the primary treatment. The therapeutic value of ciprofloxacin and other newer antibiotics in the treatment of mycobacterial infection is promising.
The authors report on 20 patients who were admitted to the University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio during a recent 4-month period with foot infections caused predominantly by non-group A streptococci. This number of patients was significantly greater than the number admitted to the same institution with the same diagnosis during the preceding 3 years. All patients had type 2 diabetes mellitus. In each case, a rapidly spreading cellulitis followed trauma to the foot, which necessitated emergent incision and drainage. Five patients required extensive fascial and skin debridement because of soft-tissue destruction, and two patients needed below-the-knee amputation because of uncontrolled infection. These cases suggest that non-group A streptococci, like group A streptococci, can cause serious skin and soft-tissue infections in patients with diabetes that may require aggressive surgical debridement despite appropriate antibiotic therapy.
The authors reviewed the admission leukocyte indices of 338 consecutive admissions (203 males, 135 females, mean age of 60.2 +/- 12.9 years) with a primary diagnosis of diabetic foot infection in a multicenter retrospective study. The mean white blood cell count on admission for all subjects studied was calculated at 11.9 +/- 5.4 x 103 cells/mm3. Of all white blood cell counts secured for patients admitted with a diabetic foot infection, 56% (189 out of 338) were within normal limits. The average automated polymorphonuclear leukocyte percentage was calculated at 71.4 +/- 11.1% (normal range 40% to 80%). Normal polymorphonuclear leukocyte values were present in 83.7% of subjects. The authors stress that the diagnosis of a diabetic pedal infection is made primarily on the basis of clinical signs and symptoms, and that a normal white cell count and white cell differential should not deter the physician from taking appropriate action to mitigate the propagation of a potentially limb-threatening pedal infection.
This randomized, prospective, multicenter, open-label study was designed to test whether a topical, electrolyzed, superoxidized solution (Microcyn Rx) is a safe and effective treatment for mildly infected diabetic foot ulcers.
Sixty-seven patients with ulcers were randomized into three groups. Patients with wounds irrigated with Microcyn Rx alone were compared with patients treated with oral levofloxacin plus normal saline wound irrigation and with patients treated with oral levofloxacin plus Microcyn Rx wound irrigation. Patients were evaluated on day 3, at the end of treatment on day 10 (visit 3), and 14 days after completion of therapy for test of cure (visit 4).
In the intention-to-treat sample at visit 3, the clinical success rate was higher in the Microcyn Rx alone group (75.0%) than in the saline plus levofloxacin group (57.1%) or in the Microcyn Rx plus levofloxacin group (64.0%). Results at visit 4 were similar. In the clinically evaluable population, the clinical success rate at visit 3 (end of treatment) for patients treated with Microcyn Rx alone was 77.8% versus 61.1% for the levofloxacin group. The clinical success rate at visit 4 (test of cure) for patients treated with Microcyn Rx alone was 93.3% versus 56.3% for levofloxacin plus saline–treated patients. This study was not statistically powered, but the high clinical success rate (93.3%) and the P value (P = .033) suggest that the difference is meaningfully positive for Microcyn Rx–treated patients.
Microcyn Rx is safe and at least as effective as oral levofloxacin for mild diabetic foot infections. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 101(6): 484–496, 2011)
Cutaneous larva migrans is the result of infestation of human skin by helminth larvae, which burrow through the epidermis. This route of infestation makes the foot a typical site for origination of this infection. Children, who frequently play barefoot in locations where the most common of the helminth larvae, the dog and cat hookworms, are endemic, are at particular risk for this disorder. This article reviews the differential diagnosis of cutaneous larva migrans and current concepts in management. Two cases of related children who presented to their pediatricians with this condition are reported.
BACKGROUND: Multiple organizations have issued guidelines to address the prevention, diagnosis and management of diabetic foot ulcers. These guidelines are based on evidence review and expert opinion. <p>METHODS: Literature review was conducted and guidelines were reviewed to identify consensus (or lack thereof) on the nature of these recommendations, the strength of the recommendations and the level of evidence.</p> <p>RESULTS: Most guidelines were not based on highest level of evidence (randomized controlled trials). A listing of recommendations for prevention, diagnosis and management was created with evidence basis for all recommendations.</p> <p>CONCLUSIONS: Areas for future research were identified among recommendations based on minimal evidence, areas of controversy, or in areas of clinical care without recommendations.</p>
Osteomyelitis is a common complication in the diabetic foot that can conclude with amputation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) in the diagnosis of osteomyelitis in diabetic foot ulcer (DFU).
Thirty patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and a DFU were enrolled. Both DWIs and conventional MRIs were obtained. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) measurements were made by transferring the images to a workstation. The measurements were made both from bone with osteomyelitis, or nearest to the injured area if osteomyelitis is not available, and from the adjacent soft tissue.
The patients comprised nine women (30%) and 21 men (70%) with a mean age of 58.7 years (range, 41–78 years). The levels of ADC were significantly low (P = .022) and the erythrocyte sedimentation rates were significantly high (P = .014) in patients with osteomyelitis (n = 9) compared with patients without osteomyelitis (n = 21). The mean ± SD bone ADC value (0.75 ± 0.16 × 10–3 mm2/sec) was significantly lower than the adjacent soft-tissue ADC value (0.90 ± 0.15 × 10–3 mm2/sec) in patients with osteomyelitis (P = .04).
It is suggested that DWI contributes to conventional MRI with short imaging time and no requirement for contrast agent. Therefore, DWI may be an alternative diagnostic method for the evaluation of DFU and the detection of osteomyelitis.