In this study of people with diabetes mellitus and peripheral neuropathy, it was found that the feet of patients with a history of hallux ulceration were more pronated and less able to complete a single-leg heel rise compared with the feet of patients with a history of ulceration elsewhere on the foot. The range of active first metatarsophalangeal joint dorsiflexion was found to be significantly lower in the affected foot. Ankle dorsiflexion, subtalar joint range of motion, and angle of gait differed from normal values but were similar to those found in other studies involving diabetic subjects and were not important factors in the occurrence of hallux ulceration. These data indicate that a more pronated foot type is associated with hallux ulceration in diabetic feet. Further studies are required to evaluate the efficacy of footwear and orthoses in altering foot posture to manage hallux ulceration. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 96(3): 189–197, 2006)
For several years, confectioned or customized interdigital silicone orthoses have been used to treat toe malformations; however, long-term clinical and biomechanical studies are missing. The aim of this study was to evaluate the biomechanical effects of these orthoses and their clinical acceptance.
In 2008, 46 patients (30 women and 16 men; average age, 56.8 years) received interdigital silicone orthoses. All of the patients were included in the biomechanical and clinical study. Compliance and acceptance were measured by the Muenster shoe and foot questionnaire, which includes 13 items on pain, activities of daily living, satisfaction, and activity. Mean follow-up was 18 months. Ten feet (eight patients) were chosen by random and underwent pedobarography. One forefoot sensor and two single sensors were attached between the skin and the orthosis. Measurements were performed in-shoe three times with and without the orthosis without removal of the sensors.
Forty-four of the 46 patients (95.7%) were included. At the 18-month investigation, 19 patients no longer used their orthoses, most commonly because of pain and failure of the material. Twenty-two patients regularly used their orthoses (8 h/d on average). In-shoe peak pressure lowered significantly with orthosis use (P < .04). Patients who used the orthoses were mostly satisfied.
Interdigital silicone orthoses reduce in-shoe peak pressure. Patient satisfaction was good. The durability of the material has to be optimized, and manufacturing remains difficult. The effect on ulcer reduction must be evaluated in a large prospective study.
Background: The removal of necrotic tissue from chronic wounds is required for wound healing to occur. Hydrodebridement (jet lavage) and superoxidized aqueous solution have been independently used for debriding wounds. We sought to investigate the use of superoxidized aqueous solution with a jet lavage system.
Methods: Twenty patients with diabetic foot ulcers were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive jet lavage debridement with either superoxidized aqueous solution or standard saline weekly.
Results: There was no significant difference between the two treatments in the reduction of bacterial load or wound size in 4 weeks. No adverse reactions were reported for either treatment.
Conclusions: The use of superoxidized aqueous solution for jet lavage debridement seemed to be as safe and effective as saline. Future investigations should concentrate on whether superoxidized aqueous solution may reduce the bacterial air contamination associated with hydrodebridement. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 101(2): 124–126, 2011)
Background: We sought to investigate the clinical efficacy of the Fuß-sole (Kuroda, Osaka, Japan), a newly developed stocking, in patients with severe foot pain attributable to rheumatoid arthritis.
Methods: The Fuß-sole stocking incorporates a plantar insole made of breathable fabric. Twenty patients with rheumatoid arthritis and severe foot pain were enrolled in this study. Clinical efficacy was evaluated using the Japanese Orthopaedic Association's foot-scoring system. Outcome measures were evaluated before and after a 1-month trial of the Fuß-sole stocking.
Results: Use of the Fuß-sole stocking resulted in significant improvements in foot pain, activities of daily living, and total scores.
Conclusions: Use of the Fuß-sole improves the quality of life of patients with rheumatoid arthritis. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 100(1): 10–13, 2010)
Background: There is no study comparing how Weber type C ankle fractures treated with either three- or four-cortex syndesmotic fixation affects the structure of the syndesmosis.
Methods: In a retrospective study, 46 patients were separated into two groups: 22 patients with three-cortex fixation and 24 patients with four-cortex fixation. All of the patients were evaluated clinically and radiographically at least 1 year after removal of the syndesmosis screws.
Results: There were three types of joint space obliteration: type 1, synostosis on plain radiographs; type 2, an incomplete bony bridge on magnetic resonance imaging with normal plain radiographs; and type 3, fibrous obliteration of the joint space. Although obliteration of the joint space was significant (P < .005) after four-cortex fixation, radiologic results did not affect the clinical outcome.
Conclusion: Four-cortex fixation for diastasis after an ankle fracture should not be a routine procedure. We advocate three-cortex fixation because the clinical results are no different and there is less syndesmotic space obliteration postoperatively. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 97(6): 457–459, 2007)
Intractable plantar keratoma is a common concern in the podiatric medical office. Different treatment options are available, ranging from trimming and padding to surgery. We sought to investigate the use of hyaluronic acid gel injections as a possible minimally invasive alternative in the treatment of intractable plantar keratomas.
Seventeen patients with intractable plantar keratomas were randomly assigned to receive a hyaluronic acid gel injection or a sterile water injection at the site of a previously trimmed plantar lesion.
There was no significant difference between the two groups in the evaluation of pain and function at 12 weeks, but both groups showed a clinically relevant improvement. No significant change was observed in plantar tissue thickness in both groups. A minor adverse reaction was seen in the hyaluronic acid group.
The use of a hyaluronic acid gel injection at the site of a trimmed intractable plantar keratoma did not seem more effective than the use of a sterile water injection. Sterile water injections seemed safe and efficient in reducing pain associated with plantar keratomas. Further investigations should concentrate on whether these results are reproducible in a larger sample and on the most effective sequence of treatment.
Although there are several different concepts of hindfoot relief footwear, there are no studies on the extent of pressure reduction to be achieved by this footwear. Therefore, we sought to evaluate the reduction in plantar pressure to be achieved with two different hindfoot relief shoes.
Ten healthy volunteers performed three trials at a self-selected speed. Peak pressure values in mass-produced shoes (normal gait) were considered as 100% and were compared with measurements in two differently designed hindfoot relief shoes. Foot portions were defined as heel (0%–15% of total insole length), hindfoot (16%–30%), midfoot (31%–60%), and forefoot (61%–100%).
Heel and hindfoot peak pressures were significantly reduced in both shoes compared with normal gait (P < .05), but the extent of peak pressure reduction under the heel and hindfoot varied significantly between the tested shoes. Midfoot peak pressure was not significantly reduced in tested shoes compared with baseline (P > .05) but differed significantly between the two shoes. Forefoot peak pressure was significantly reduced with one of the tested shoes (to a median 73% baseline; P = .004) but not with the other (median, 88% baseline).
Hindfoot relief shoes leave a considerable amount of peak pressure, predominantly under the hindfoot. The extent of peak pressure reduction for the heel and the hindfoot varies between different hindfoot relief shoes. Depending on the affected foot area, the kind of hindfoot relief shoe should be carefully chosen.
Over a 74-month period (∼6 years), 143 lower-extremity osteomyelitis locations in 125 patients were treated with a calcium sulfate/hydroxyapatite liquid bone void filler with antibiotic(s).
The osteomyelitis locations were treated with a percutaneous antibiotic delivery technique delivering intraosseous antibiotic followed by either oral or intravenous antibiotics for 4 weeks.
There was no recurrence of osteomyelitis in 96.15% of the treatable patients. Outcomes classified by the Cierny-Mader clinical classification are discussed as well.
A bone void filler with antibiotic(s) using the percutaneous antibiotic delivery technique is a safe, reliable, and effective means to treat lower-extremity osteomyelitis with either oral or intravenous antibiotics for 4 weeks.
We conducted a post-hoc retrospective analysis of patients enrolled in a randomized controlled trial to evaluate overall costs of negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT; V.A.C. Therapy; KCI USA, Inc, San Antonio, Texas) versus advanced moist wound therapy (AMWT) in treating grade 2 and 3 diabetic foot wounds during a 12-week therapy course.
Data from two study arms (NPWT [n = 169] or AMWT [n = 166]) originating from Protocol VAC2001-08 were collected from patient records and used as the basis of the calculations performed in our cost analysis.
A total of 324 patient records (NPWT = 162; AMWT = 162) were analyzed. There was a median wound area reduction of 85.0% from baseline in patients treated with NPWT compared to a 61.8% reduction in those treated with AMWT. The total cost for all patients, regardless of closure, was $1,941,472.07 in the NPWT group compared to $2,196,315.86 in the AMWT group. In patients who achieved complete wound closure, the mean cost per patient in the NPWT group was $10,172 compared to $9,505 in the AMWT group; the median cost per 1 cm2 of closure was $1,227 with NPWT and $1,695 with AMWT. In patients who did not achieve complete wound closure, the mean total wound care cost per patient in the NPWT group was $13,262, compared to $15,069 in the AMWT group. The median cost to close 1 cm2 in wounds that didn't heal using NPWT was $1,633, compared to $2,927 with AMWT.
Our results show greater cost effectiveness with NPWT versus AMWT in recalcitrant wounds that didn't close during a 12-week period, due to lower expenditures on procedures and use of health-care resources.
Onychomycosis is one of the most common diseases of the toenails. The costs of diagnosis and treatment are substantial, and as the population ages, the overall cost burden will continue to escalate. The purpose of this study was to correlate dermoscopic features with pathologic diagnosis to support the accuracy of point-of-care diagnosis by dermoscopic examination.
Nail unit pathology reports of 52 patients with abnormal great toenails were compared with the dermoscopic features detected by nail unit dermoscopy.
The dermoscopic analysis predicted the laboratory diagnosis in 90.4% of the study patients. The specific dermoscopic findings of short spikes (P < .001), long striae (P < .001), aurora borealis (P < .001), irregular termination (P = .003), dermatophytoma (P = .011), transverse onycholysis (P = .018), and dry scale (P = .04) patterns were all significantly associated with pathology test results consistent with oncyhomycosis. Transverse onycholysis (P = .018) was significantly associated with negative pathology results consistent with the diagnosis of nail dystrophy.
Point-of-care examination by dermoscopy positively correlates with histopathologic tests and could be used to diagnose onychomycosis while reducing diagnostic costs.