INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to determine whether some foot/ankle surgeries would benefit from routine use of low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) as postoperative DVT prophylaxis.
METHODS: We conducted a formal cost-effectiveness analysis using a decision analytic tree to represent the risk of complications under a scenario of no prophylaxis and a scenario of routine LMWH prophylaxis for 4 weeks. The two scenarios were compared for five procedures: 1) Achilles tendon repair (ATR), 2) total ankle replacement (TAR), 3) hallux valgus surgery (HVS), 4) hindfoot arthrodesis (HA), and 5) ankle fracture surgery (AFS). Outcomes assessed included short and long-term costs, quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), and incremental cost per QALY gained. Costs were evaluated from the health care system perspective and expressed in US dollars at a 2015 price base. In the short-term, routine prophylaxis was always associated with greater costs compared to no prophylaxis.
RESULTS: For ATR, TAR, HA and AFS prophylaxis was associated with slightly better health outcomes; however, the gain in QALYs was minimal compared to the cost of prophylaxis (ICER was well above $50,000/QALY threshold). For HVS, prophylaxis was associated with both worse health outcomes and greater costs. In the long-term, routine prophylaxis was always associated with worse health outcomes.
CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that the decision to use LMWH prophylaxis should not be based solely on the type of foot/ankle surgery planned. Patient factors also need to be carefully weighed.
Magnetic resonance imaging is playing an increasingly important role in evaluation of the injured athlete’s foot and ankle. Magnetic resonance imaging allows accurate detection of bony abnormalities, such as stress fractures, and soft-tissue abnormalities, including ligament tears, tendon tears, and tendinopathy. The interpreter of magnetic resonance images should systematically review the images, noting normal structures and accounting for changes in soft-tissue and bony signal. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 97(1): 59–67, 2007)
We sought to compare clinical efficacy among endoscopy-assisted radio-frequency ablation under local anesthesia, extracorporeal shockwaves (ESWs), and eccentric exercises in treating insertional Achilles tendinosis.
In this retrospective study, 78 patients diagnosed as having unilateral insertional Achilles tendinosis were enrolled. These participants underwent endoscopy-assisted radio-frequency ablation, ESWs, and eccentric calf muscle exercises between March 1, 2006, and February 28, 2011. Clinical efficacy was evaluated by the visual analog scale (VAS), the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) ankle/hindfoot scale, and the Victorian Institute of Sport Assessment–Achilles (VISA-A) scale before and after treatment.
Before treatment, there were no statistically significant differences in VAS, AOFAS ankle/hindfoot scale, and VISA-A scale scores among the different groups (all P > .05). For the endoscopy and ESW groups, VAS, AOFAS ankle/hindfoot scale, and VISA-A scale scores were significantly improved after 18 months of treatment (all P < .05). The VAS, AOFAS ankle/hindfoot scale, and VISA-A scale scores in the endoscopy group were significantly higher than those in the ESW and eccentric exercise groups after 18 months of therapy (all P < .05).
Combined with synovectomy and tendon debridement, endoscopy-assisted radio-frequency ablation yields better clinical efficacy compared with ESWs in treating insertional Achilles tendinosis.
The authors reviewed 91 surgical procedures in 87 patients with chronic Achilles tendinopathy. There were 62 males and 25 females (mean age, 44.9 years). The average interval between surgery and review for the group was 4.2 years (range, 1 to 10 years). Twenty patients underwent peritenolysis, with a mean return-to-activity time of 7.7 weeks. Four patients with concomitant bony procedures had significantly longer return-to-activity times than 16 patients who underwent peritenolysis only. The mean return-to-activity time was 13.2 weeks in 15 patients who had Achilles debridement for mucoid degeneration, 14.4 weeks in 32 Achilles tendocalcinosis repair patients, 18.6 weeks in 24 patients who had retrocalcaneal exostectomy procedures, and 34.0 weeks in 5 patients who had chronic Achilles rupture repair. Athletic patients (n = 47) had significantly shorter return-to-activity times than active (n = 38) and sedentary (n = 6) patients. Males returned to activity faster than females. Runners returned to activity faster than other patients. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 93(4): 283-291, 2003)
Achilles tenotomy is performed for the residual equinus deformity in the Ponseti method of clubfoot treatment. In the present article, we describe a mini-open Achilles tenotomy technique to prevent complications that could occur during tenotomy. This technique was performed on 15 patients (25 feet) during a 3-year period in our clinic on patients whose equinus deformities could not have been corrected by manipulations. Clear improvement (mean angle, 30°) was observed in equinus in our patients, and we have not seen any complication in this method. We conclude that direct visualizing of the tendon with mini-open incision may reduce the risk of neurovascular injury, especially for surgeons who are not experienced. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 98(5): 414–417, 2008)
We report a case of focal tuberculous involvement of the posterior margin of the calcaneus with preservation of the articular margin. The route of infection was direct extension through tuberculous retrocalcaneal bursitis, a rare and atypical pathogenesis. Magnetic resonance imaging was helpful in ruling out neoplasm and in limiting the diagnosis to an inflammatory infectious process. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 95(3): 285–290, 2005)
A rare case of closed complete rupture of the flexor hallucis longus tendon with subsequent longitudinal tear of the flexor digitorum longus tendon is reported in a marathon runner. This is also a first case report of flexor hallucis longus transplant with cadaveric posterior tibial tendon allograft. Two minimal incisions distal and proximal to the malleolus allowed for tunneling with urethral dilators to open the tendon sheath for transplantation, avoiding the need for a large incision. Postoperatively, the patient regained active flexion at the interphalangeal joint of the left hallux. Four months after surgery, full range of motion was observed and dynamometric exam revealed 68% of the strength of the contralateral side. The patient was able to resume competitive running after the surgery and performed well in her age bracket.
The flexor digitorum accessorius longus muscle was observed during a cadaveric surgery course on the foot and ankle for third-year podiatric medical students. The cadaveric foot had been amputated just proximal to the ankle level so that the muscle origin could not be determined; its insertion, however, was found to be into the flexor digitorum longus tendon, just before the tendon split into its digital slips. This article reviews the literature on the muscle and its clinical implications and describes and shows the muscle as it was seen in this case. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 92(8): 463-466, 2002)