The Tacoma–Pierce County Department of Health, the Pierce County Antibiotic Resistance Task Force, and the Washington State Department of Licensing (DOL) designed an intervention to determine whether nail salon infection control practices could be improved by educating salon employees and their customers about good infection control practices.
Twenty intervention salons and 26 control salons completed the 3-month study. The intervention group received a letter asking them to “join our campaign to promote healthy people in healthy communities … .” Two DOL pamphlets on cleaning and disinfecting and a tent card with important infection control reminders—targeted to clients on one side and to salon workers on the other side—were also included. Outreach workers from the health department visited 25 (of the original 27) intervention salons once and talked about the materials included in the mailing. Inspection infractions were used to measure compliance with infection control practices. Each salon was inspected by the DOL at baseline, within 1 month after the educational mailing, and within 1 month after an outreach visit from the local health department.
Both groups exhibited statistically significant decreases in infractions; however, the intervention group exhibited a higher and more significant decrease in infractions than the control group.
The intervention and control groups underwent three DOL inspections, which may have resulted in a Hawthorne Effect, with both groups seeing a statistically significant decline in infractions after inspection visits. The more significant decrease in the number of infractions cited in the intervention salons may be due to the educational materials and the health education site visit they received.
In the case reported, M. fortuitum was sensitive in vitro to amikacin, erythromycin, tobramycin, and ciprofloxacin. Because the patient did not respond to long-term therapy with amikacin and erythromycin, an experimental antibiotic, ciprofloxacin, was tried. Only after extensive surgical debridement and 2 1/2 months of oral ciprofloxacin therapy was the infection eradicated and wound healing obtained. The authors conclude that a wound that has reopened, but remains indolent, exudes a clear, serous drainage and responds poorly to antibiotics should suggest a possible mycobacterial infection. Combination antibiotic therapy is recommended because of the high rate of relapse and development of resistance to drugs. Extensive surgical debridement of all infected tissue remains the primary treatment. The therapeutic value of ciprofloxacin and other newer antibiotics in the treatment of mycobacterial infection is promising.
Background: Ingrowing toenail is a common condition treated by general surgeons. Our aim was to analyze the effectiveness of wedge resection with phenolization in the surgical treatment of ingrowing toenails.
Methods: We retrospectively audited 100 patients who underwent wedge resection with phenolization for the treatment of ingrowing toenail between January 2000 and June 2004 by a single surgeon. We reviewed all charts and attempted to contact all patients for a telephone interview to assess patient satisfaction. Outcome measures were: 1) recurrence rate, 2) duration of analgesic use, 3) postoperative complications including wound infection, 4) time to return to normal activities, and 5) satisfaction with the procedure.
Results: A total of 168 wedge resection with phenolization procedures were performed on 100 patients. There was only one recurrence (0.6%). Two patients (2%) had wound infection and were treated with oral antibiotics. The average time for a single wedge resection with phenolization procedure was 7.3 minutes. The mean time to return to normal activities was 2.1 weeks. The patient response rate for the telephone interview was 60%. Most respondents (93.3%) were satisfied with the overall outcome.
Conclusions: Wedge resection with phenolization is a very effective mode of therapy in the surgical treatment of ingrowing toenail, with a very low recurrence rate and minimal postoperative morbidity. Wedge resection with phenolization should be considered as a good alternative technique in the treatment of ingrowing toenail. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 98(2): 118–122, 2008)
Retrograde intramedullary nailing for tibiotalocalcaneal arthrodesis (TTCA) is used for severe hindfoot deformities, end-stage arthritis, and limb salvage. The procedure is technically demanding, with complications such as infection, hardware failure, nonunion, osteomyelitis, and possible limb loss or death. This study reports the outcomes and complications of patients undergoing TTCA with a femoral nail, which is widely available and offers an extensive range of lengths and diameters.
We performed a retrospective review of 104 patients who underwent 109 TTCAs using a femoral nail as the primary procedure (January 2006 through December 2016). Demographic data, risk factors, and outcomes were evaluated.
At final follow-up, the overall clinical union rate was 89 of 109 (81.7%). Diabetes mellitus was negatively associated with limb salvage (P = .03), and peripheral neuropathy (P = .02) and Charcot's neuroarthropathy (P = .03) were negatively associated with clinical union. Only four patients (3.8%) underwent proximal amputation, at an average of 6.1 months, and 11 patients (10.6%) died, at a mean of 38.0 months. The most common complication was ulceration in 27 of 109 limbs (24.8%), followed by infection in 25 (22.9%). Twenty-three patients (22.1%) underwent revision procedures, at a mean of 9.4 months. Thirteen of these 23 patients (56.5%) had antibiotic cement rod spacers/rods for deep infection–related complications.
Use of a femoral nail has been shown to provide similar outcomes and limb salvage rates compared with other methods of TTCA reported for similar indications in the literature.
Severely incurved toenails are accompanied by deformity of the toenail growth plate. In such a condition, partial removal of the nail and nail bed and simple unfolding of the nail itself frequently result in the recurrence of symptoms. We sought to design and develop a new technique for the treatment of incurved toenail with growth plate deformity and to report the results of treating this disease entity.
Forty consecutive patients (52 cases) underwent treatment of symptomatic incurved toenails with a new technique named matrixplasty. The mean ± SD patient age was 40.3 ± 18.9 years. Last follow-up was at a mean ± SD of 18.0 ± 1.3 months. An American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) forefoot hallux score was assigned, and patients were evaluated before treatment and at last follow-up. Patient satisfaction and the recurrence rate of the deformity were evaluated. For evaluation of improvement in toenail shape, the center to edge angle of the toenail was measured before treatment and at last follow-up. The complication rate was also evaluated.
All of the ingrown toenails healed, and the nail deformities were corrected within 3 weeks after the procedure. None of the incurved toenails had recurred by last follow-up. The mean pretreatment AOFAS forefoot hallux score was 72.9, and it improved to 99.6 by last follow-up (P < .001). Every patient was very satisfied or satisfied with the results of treatment. The mean ± SD center to edge angle of the toenail improved from 53.3° ± 9.5° to 15.3° ± 5.2° by last follow-up (P < .001). Minor paronychia, which was managed with local wound dressing and oral antibiotics, was identified in four cases. No other complication was identified.
Matrixplasty showed excellent clinical results in the treatment of severe incurved toenail, and this newly developed procedure showed improvement of the deformed toenail and its growth plate. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 102(3): 198–204, 2012)
The infected diabetic lower extremity has enjoyed a surge in popularity in the medical literature. There have been numerous papers outlining classification systems for ulcer depth, surgical approaches, and microbiology. Discussions on antibiotic use have usually been directed toward therapy of the "diabetic foot infections" as a group, without regard to differences in severity and location of these infections. These infections can vary from the most superficial of processes to a severe life- and limb-threatening sepsis. The author presents a review of the processes involved in the diabetic lower extremity infection and suggests a classification system for selection of empiric antibiotic therapy based on the severity of the infection.
Although Kirschner wire implantation is popular for treating toe deformities, complications frequently occur. To prevent pin-tract infection and difficult Kirschner wire extraction, several implants have been developed to improve treatment outcomes.
Patients who had undergone an interphalangeal fusion by two-component implant for the treatment of toe deformities were included. Thirty-one toes of 21 patients were evaluated retrospectively. American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) forefoot scores were used in clinical evaluation.
The mean operation duration per toe was 16.4 min (range, 13–26 min). The average AOFAS forefoot score was 42.76 (range, 23–57) preoperatively and 88.76 (range, 70–95) at 34.4 months (range, 26–46 months) after surgery. Mean follow-up was 14.8 months (range, 12–19 months). Compared with before surgery, the AOFAS score was increased significantly after surgery (P = .03 by t test). Three minor complications were encountered. In one patient an infection was observed. After the implants were removed (first month) she was treated successfully by debridement and antibiotic agents and, finally, Kirschner wire placement. The second patient had a fissure fracture at the proximal phalanx, but routine follow-up did not change. In the third patient, the locking mechanism had become loose (detected on day 1 radiography); it was remounted under fluoroscopy without opening the wound. No patients had a cutout, loss of alignment, recurrence, or persistent swelling.
Outcomes of arthrodesis using the two-component implant were found to be safe and reliable, especially for hammer toe and fifth toe deformities.
Recently the authors have noted a disturbing trend toward an increased incidence of necrotizing infections caused by non-group A streptococcal species. This article describes the typical clinical course of such an infection. Prompt surgical intervention, coupled with an antibiotic regimen aimed at mitigating exotoxin release, may be both limb- and life-preserving.
A maculopapular rash has been associated with the administration of imipenem-cilastatin, an antibiotic that was used for treatment of a postoperative infection. This is a first-time association of imipenem with a leukocytoclastic vasculitic reaction. Leukocytoclastic vasculitis has been previously documented with ciprofloxacin, zidovudine, piperazine, and lithium.
Staphylococcus is, by far, the most commonly seen organism in podiatric infections. Although common, staphylococcal infections are difficult to understand and treat. These bacteria have undergone significant changes in their pathogenicity and antibiotic susceptibility over the last few years. Methicillin-resistant strains, once relatively rare, are becoming a major therapeutic dilemma in some centers.