The lower-extremity amputation rate in people with diabetes mellitus is high, and the wound failure rate at the time of amputation is as high as 28%. Even with successful healing of the primary amputation site, amputation of part of the contralateral limb occurs in 50% of patients within 2 to 5 years. The purpose of this study was to provide valid outcome data before (control period) and 18 months after (test period) implementation of a multidisciplinary team approach using verified methods to improve the institutional care of wounds. Retrospective medical chart review was performed for 118 control patients and 116 test patients. The amputation rate was significantly decreased during the test period, and the amputations that were required were at a significantly more distal level. No above-the-knee amputations were required in 45 patients during the test period, compared with 14 of 76 patients during the control period. These outcome data suggest that unified care is an effective approach for the patient with diabetic foot problems. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 92(8): 425-428, 2002)
The comorbidities of diabetes mellitus were evaluated in an Asian American population with podiatric symptoms living in southern California. The three most common nonpedal complaints in men were blurred vision (73.6%), hypertension (64.1%), and erectile dysfunction (52.3%) and in women were blurred vision (84.5%), incontinence (71.5%), and low-back pain with radiculopathy-like symptoms (56.5%). The most significant finding was that only 3.2% of all patients had any previous knowledge or understanding of the risks of foot infection, ulceration, and amputation secondary to diabetes mellitus. The prevalence of diabetes mellitus in ethnic populations once considered practically exempt continues to rise steadily, and Asians living in the United States are becoming casualties of diabetes mellitus and its complications. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 93(1): 37-41, 2003)
Diabetic foot ulcer (DFU) is a serious health problem. Major amputation increases the risk of mortality in patients with DFU; therefore, treatment methods other than major amputation come to the fore for these patients. Graft applications create an appropriate environment for the reproduction of epithelial cells. Similarly, epidermal growth factor (EGF) also stimulates epithelization and increases epidermis formation. In this study, we aimed to compare patients with DFU treated with EGF and those treated with a split-thickness skin graft.
Patients who were treated for DFU in the general surgery clinic were included in the study. The patients were evaluated retrospectively according to their demographic characteristics, wound characteristics, duration of treatment, and treatment modalities.
There were 26 patients in the EGF group and 21 patients in the graft group. The mean duration of treatment was 7 weeks (4-8 weeks) in the EGF group and 5.3 weeks (4-8 weeks) in the graft group (P < .05). In the EGF group, wound healing could not be achieved in one patient during the study period. In the graft group, no recovery was achieved in three patients (14.2%) in the donor site. Graft loss was detected in four patients (19%), and partial graft loss was observed in three patients (14.2%). The DFU of these patients were on the soles (85.7%). These patients have multiple comorbidities.
EGF application may be preferred to avoid graft complications in the graft area and the donor site, especially in elderly patients with multiple comorbidities and wounds on the soles.
The neuropathic foot has the potential to develop Charcot arthropathy. This study describes multiple cases of Charcot’s foot following surgery. Of all the cases described, only one patient had any preexisting Charcot deformity or acute Charcot event. The study concludes that alterations of mechanical forces in the foot play an important role in triggering an acute Charcot episode. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 91(8): 388-393, 2001)
Despite advancements in the treatment of diabetic patients with “at-risk” limbs, minor and major amputations remain commonplace. The diabetic population is especially prone to surgical complications from lower extremity amputation because of comorbidities such as renal disease, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, microvascular and macrovascular disease, and peripheral neuropathy. Complication occurrence may result in increases in hospital stay duration, unplanned readmission rate, mortality rate, number of operations, and incidence of infection. Skin flap necrosis and wound healing delay secondary to inadequate perfusion of soft tissues continues to result in significant morbidity, mortality, and cost to individuals and the health-care system. Intraoperative indocyanine green fluorescent angiography for the assessment of tissue perfusion may be used to assess tissue perfusion in this patient population to minimize complications associated with amputations. This technology provides real-time functional assessment of the macrovascular and microvascular systems in addition to arterial and venous flow to and from the flap soft tissues. This case study explores the use of indocyanine green fluorescent angiography for the treatment of a diabetic patient with a large dorsal and plantar soft-tissue deficit and need for transmetatarsal amputation with nontraditional rotational flap coverage. The authors theorize that the use of indocyanine green may decrease postoperative complications and cost to the health-care system through fewer readmissions and fewer procedures.
Diabetes-related lower limb amputations (LLAs) are a major complication that can be reduced by employing multidisciplinary center frameworks such as the Toe and Flow model (TFM). In this study, we investigate the LLAs reduction efficacy of the TFM compared to the standard of care (SOC) in the Canadian health-care system.
We retrospectively reviewed the anonymized diabetes-related LLA reports (2007-2017) in Calgary and Edmonton metropolitan health zones in Alberta, Canada. Both zones have the same provincial health-care coverage and similar demographics; however, Calgary operates based on the TFM while Edmonton with the provincial SOC. LLAs were divided into minor and major amputation cohorts and evaluated using the chi-square test, linear regression. A lower major LLAs rate was denoted as a sign for higher efficacy of the system.
Although LLAs numbers remained relatively comparable (Calgary: 2238 and Edmonton: 2410), the Calgary zone had both significantly lower major (45%) and higher minor (42%) amputation incidence rates compared to the Edmonton zone. The increasing trend in minor LLAs and decreasing major LLAs in the Calgary zone were negatively and significantly correlated (r = -0.730, p = 0.011), with no significant correlation in the Edmonton zone.
Calgary's decreasing diabetes-related major LLAs and negative correlation in the minor-major LLAs rates compared to its sister zone Edmonton, provides support for the positive impact of the TFM. This investigation includes support for a modernization of the diabetes-related limb preservation practice in Canada by implementing TFMs across the country to combat major LLAs.
Background: Diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs) are the main cause of hospitalizations and amputations in diabetic patients. Failure of standard foot care is the most important cause of impaired DFU healing. Dakin’s solution (DS) is a promising broad-spectrum bactericidal antiseptic for management of DFUs. Studies investigating the efficacy of using DS on the healing process of DFUs are scarce. Accordingly, this is the first evidence-based, randomized, controlled trial conducted to evaluate the effect of using diluted DS compared with the standard care in the management of infected DFUs.
Methods: A randomized controlled trial was conducted to assess the efficacy of DS in the management of infected DFUs. Patients were distributed randomly to the control group (DFUs irrigated with normal saline) or the intervention group (DFUs irrigated with 0.1% DS). Patients were followed for at least 24 weeks for healing, reinfection, or amputations. In vitro antimicrobial testing on DS was performed, including determination of its minimum inhibitory concentration, minimum bactericidal concentration, minimum biofilm inhibitory concentration, minimum biofilm eradication concentration, and suspension test.
Results: Replacing normal saline irrigation in DFU standard care with 0.1% DS followed by soaking the ulcer with commercial sodium hypochlorite (0.08%) after patient discharge significantly improved ulcer healing (P < .001) and decreased the number of amputations and hospitalizations (P < .001). The endpoint of death from any cause (risk ratio, 0.13; P = .029) and the amputation rate (risk ratio, 0.27; P < .001) were also significantly reduced. The effect on ulcer closure (OR, 11.9; P < .001) was significantly enhanced in comparison with the control group. Moreover, DS irrigation for inpatients significantly decreased bacterial load (P < .001). The highest values for the in-vitro analysis of DS were as follows: minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), 1.44%; minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC), 1.44%; minimum biofilm inhibitory concentration (MBIC), 2.16%; and minimum biofilm eradication concentration (MBEC), 2.87%.
Conclusions: Compared with standard care, diluted DS (0.1%) was more effective in the management of infected DFUs. Dakin’s solution (0.1%) irrigation with debridement followed by standard care is a promising method in the management of infected DFUs.
Background: The deep plantar arterial arch (DPAA) is formed by an anastomosis between the deep plantar artery and the lateral plantar artery. The potential risk of injury to the DPAA is concerning when performing transmetatarsal amputations, and care must be taken to preserve the anatomy. We sought to determine the positional anatomy of the DPAA based on anatomical landmarks that could be easily identified and palpated during transmetatarsal amputation.
Methods: In an effort to improve our understanding of the positional relationship of the DPAA to the distal metatarsal parabola, dissections were performed on 45 cadaveric feet to measure the location of the DPAA with respect to the distal metatarsal epiphyses. Images of the dissected specimens were digitally acquired and saved for measurement using in-house–written software. The mean, SD, SEM, and 95% confidence interval were calculated for all of the measurement parameters and are reported on pooled data and by sex. An independent-samples t test was used to assess for sex differences. Interrater reliability of the measurements was estimated using the intraclass correlation coefficient.
Results: The origin of the DPAA was located a mean ± SD of 35.6 ± 3.9 mm (95% confidence interval, 34.5–36.8 mm) proximal to the perpendicular line connecting the first and fifth metatarsal heads. The average interrater reliability across all of the measurements was 0.921.
Conclusions: This study provides the positional relationship of the DPAA with respect to the distal metatarsal parabola. This method is easily reproducible and may assist the foot and ankle surgeon with surgical planning and approach when performing partial pedal amputation.
Vitamin D is an essential vitamin that targets several tissues and organs and plays an important role in calcium homeostasis. Vitamin D deficiency is common, particularly at higher latitudes, where there is reduced exposure to ultraviolet B radiation. We reviewed the role of vitamin D and its deficiency in foot and ankle pathology.
The effects of vitamin D deficiency have been extensively studied, but only a small portion of the literature has focused on the foot and ankle. Most evidence regarding the foot and ankle consists of retrospective studies, which cannot determine whether vitamin D deficiency is, in fact, the cause of the pathologies being investigated.
The available evidence suggests that insufficient vitamin D levels may result in an increased incidence of foot and ankle fractures. The effects of vitamin D deficiency on fracture healing, bone marrow edema syndrome, osteochondral lesions of the talus, strength around the foot and ankle, tendon disorders, elective foot and ankle surgery, and other foot and ankle conditions are less clear.
Based on the available evidence, we cannot recommend routine testing or supplementation of vitamin D in patients with foot and ankle pathology. However, supplementation is cheap, safe, and may be of benefit in patients at high risk for deficiency. When vitamin D is supplemented, the evidence suggests that calcium should be co-supplemented. Further high-quality research is needed into the effect of vitamin D in the foot and ankle. Cost-benefit analyses of routine testing and supplementation of vitamin D for foot and ankle pathology are also required.