A prospective study examining the epidemiology of blisters and, in particular, the association of blisters with subsequent injuries was conducted involving 2,130 male US Marine Corps recruits participating in initial physical training at the Marine Corps Recruit Depot in San Diego, California. From January 1993 through September 1994, recruits experienced an incidence of 2.05 blisters per 100 recruit-months. Recruits with blisters were 50% more likely to experience an additional training-related injury. Blisters, in combination with other related injuries, resulted in 159 clinic visits, 103 days of assigned light duty, and 177 lost days of training. This loss of time cost a minimum of $29,529. Extrapolating to the annual population of recruits, this represents an approximate annual expense of $690,000. Aggressive blister prevention and management in this setting has the potential to greatly reduce morbidity and fiscal costs.
Pes cavus is a structural deformity in which the increased plantar arch can lead to greater metatarsal verticality with the consequent excess of pressure under the forefoot zone (especially the metatarsal zone), causing pain and significant loss of functional capacity. We sought to determine whether neuromuscular stretching with symmetrical rectangular biphasic currents can reduce the pressure supported by this zone.
This prospective, nonrandomized, longitudinal, analytical, and experimental controlled trial included 34 patients with pes cavus. Pedobarometric measurements were made using the footscan USB Gait Clinical System platform considering the toes and metatarsal heads, forefoot, midfoot, and hindfoot before and after performing stretching using a Med Tens 931 electrotherapy device. The measurements were repeated 7 days after the application.
With the Student t test for paired samples, we showed that there was a significant decline in metatarsal pressure (P < .001) in the zones of the first (P = .045) and third (P = .01) metatarsals and that this reduction was maintained 1 week after the plantar stretching.
Plantar stretching with symmetrical rectangular biphasic currents is effective for the prevention and treatment of pes cavus metatarsalgia caused by excessive pressure. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 103(3): 191–196, 2013)
Although depression and depressive symptoms have been previously explored in various medical student cohorts, there has been a lack of formal investigation among podiatric medical students specifically. The purpose of this study was to identify the prevalence and related characteristics of depression and depressive symptoms in podiatric medical students.
A mixed-methods approach was used. Students at a podiatric medical college were asked to complete the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale Revised survey electronically each year for 4 consecutive years. Focus group sessions were also conducted to further explore topics related to depression and depressive symptoms.
Surveys were completed by 271 of 539 potential respondents (50.3%). A total of 34.7% of respondents screened positive for depression or depressive symptoms, defined as meeting or exceeding the criteria for subthreshold depressive symptoms on the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale Revised. The prevalence was found to be lower in clinical students (third- and fourth-year students) and in students in committed relationships. Themes from the focus group sessions included the following: coping with stress, general health concerns, self-evaluation, action and preparation, and the use of campus resources.
Depression and depressive symptoms were commonly encountered in this podiatric medical student cohort. Future investigations may consider specific treatment and prevention strategies.
Linezolid, a mild monoamine oxidase inhibitor, is a commonly used antibiotic drug for the treatment of complicated skin and skin structure infections, including diabetic foot infections. Use of linezolid has been associated with serotonin syndrome, a potentially life-threatening condition typically caused by the combination of two or more medications with serotonergic properties, due to increased serotonin release. The goals of this article are to highlight the risk factors associated with the development of serotonin syndrome related to the use of linezolid and to aid in its prevention and early diagnosis. In this case series we report on two hospitalized patients who, while being treated with linezolid for pedal infections, developed serotonin syndrome. Both individuals were also undergoing treatment with at least one serotonergic agent for depression and had received this medication within 2 weeks of starting the antibiotic drug therapy. In these individuals, we noted agitation, confusion, tremors, and tachycardia within a few days of initiation of linezolid therapy. Owing to the risk of serotonin toxicity, care should be taken when prescribing linezolid in conjunction with any other serotonergic agent. Although serotonin syndrome is an infrequent complication, it can be potentially life threatening. Therefore, risks and benefits of therapy should be weighed before use.
People suffering from diabetes are at risk of developing foot ulcerations, which, if left untreated, could also lead to amputation. Monitoring of the foot temperature can help in the prevention of these foot complications, and various studies have shown that elevated temperatures may be indicative of ulceration. Over the years there have been various devices that were designed for foot temperature monitoring, both for clinical and home use. The technologies used vary from infrared (IR) thermometry, liquid crystal thermography (LCT), IR thermography and a vast range of analogue and digital temperature sensors that were incorporated in different measurement platforms. All these systems are able to collect thermal data from the foot, some being able to acquire data only when the foot is stationary and others being able to acquire from the foot in motion, which can give a more in-depth insight to any emerging problems. The aim of this review is to evaluate the available literature related to the technologies used in these systems, outlining the benefits of each and what further developments may be required to make the foot temperature analysis more effective.
Eleven patients with limited joint mobility and neuropathy were enrolled in a physical therapy program of passive joint mobilization at a rate of two sessions per week. Treatment resulted in a significant improvement in joint mobility after 10 sessions. Further improvement after 20 sessions did not reach the level of statistical significance, although near-normal joint mobility was attained. After completion of therapy, there was a progressive deterioration in joint mobility. No serious adverse effects were noted during treatment. This study provides some evidence that use of physical therapy may result in significant, although temporary, improvement in the mobility of the ankle and foot joints in diabetic patients with limited joint mobility and neuropathy. As limited joint mobility has been associated with the development of abnormally high pressures under the feet, which in turn may contribute to plantar ulceration in the susceptible neuropathic foot, the results indicate that physical therapy may be useful in the prevention of plantar ulceration in diabetic patients with limited joint mobility and neuropathy, although this must be verified by additional research.
Drug based treatment of superficial fungal infections, such as onychomycosis, is not the only defense. Sanitization of footwear such as shoes, socks/stockings, and other textiles is integral to the prevention of recurrence, and reduction of spread for superficial fungal mycoses. The goal of this review was to examine the available methods of sanitization for footwear and textiles against superficial fungal infections. A systematic literature search of various sanitization devices and methods that could be applied to footwear and textiles using PubMed, Scopus, and MEDLINE was performed. Fifty-four studies were found relevant to the different methodologies, devices, and techniques of sanitization as it pertains to superficial fungal infections of the feet. These included topics of basic sanitization, antifungal and antimicrobial materials, sanitization chemicals and powder, laundering, ultraviolet, ozone, non-thermal plasma, microwave radiation, essential oils, and natural plant extracts. In management of onychomycosis it is necessary to think beyond treatment of the nail, as infections enter through the skin. Those prone to onychomycosis should examine their environment, including surfaces, shoes, and socks, and ensure that proper sanitization is implemented.
Lower-extremity pathologic abnormalities have been common in military recruits for many years. Many of these conditions can become chronic and persist even after retiring from military service. We hypothesized that certain foot abnormalities are more prevalent in veterans versus nonveterans. The purpose of this study was to evaluate what foot and ankle disorders are associated with veteran status while controlling for other demographic factors.
The National Health Interview Survey (Podiatry Supplement) from 1990 was used for this secondary data analysis. The data were divided into veterans and nonveterans, and the prevalence of podiatric medical problems, including callus, flatfoot deformity, bunion deformity, hammer toe deformity, arthritis, and sprain, was evaluated for each group.
Flatfoot deformity and arthritis were significantly more prevalent in veterans versus nonveterans in the United States. Bunion deformity was significantly more prevalent in male veterans than in male nonveterans. Male veterans were less likely than male nonveterans to have sprains, and female veterans were more likely than their nonveteran counterparts to have sprains.
These results may help us understand the potential risk factors for podiatric medical problems and may be used for formulating prevention programs. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 101(4): 323–330, 2011)
Cohesive taping is commonly used for the prevention or treatment of ankle sprain injuries. Short-leg cast immobilization or splinting is another treatment option in such cases. To determine the clinical efficacy and antiedema effects of cohesive taping and short-leg cast immobilization in acute low-type ankle sprains of physically active patients, we performed a preliminary clinical study to assess objective evidence for edema and functional patient American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) scores with these alternative treatments.
Fifty-nine physically active patients were included: 32 in the taping group and 27 in the short-leg cast group within a year. If a sprain was moderate (grade II) or mild (grade I), we used functional taping or short-leg cast immobilization for 10 days. We evaluated the edema and the functional scores of the injured ankle using the AOFAS Clinical Rating System on days 1, 10, and 100.
In each group, edema significantly decreased and AOFAS scores increased indicating that both treatment methods were effective. With the numbers available, no statistically significant difference could be detected.
Each treatment method was effective in decreasing the edema and increasing the functional scores of the ankle. At the beginning of treatment, not only the level of edema but also the initial functional scores of the ankle and examinations are important in making decisions regarding the optimal treatment option.