Chronic decubitus ulceration of the heels is a common condition encountered by podiatric physicians, especially in diabetic patients. Very often these ulcerations can progress to osteomyelitis of the calcaneus. Many times, this in turn leads to a below-the-knee amputation. A partial calcanectomy is a viable alternative to below-the-knee amputation. A more functional limb both mechanically and cosmetically is achieved, and the morbidity and mortality associated with the calcanectomy is less than with a below-the-knee amputation. A brief overview of the history and outcomes associated with this procedure is outlined and a case utilizing a partial calcanectomy is presented. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 91(7): 369-372, 2001)
Posterior heel pain after a prior Haglund's deformity surgical correction can be resultant to multiple etiologies: osseous, tendinous, and neural. In this case report, all three potential etiologies were found to be contributing to the postoperative status of the patient. This case report illustrates identification and treatment of a neuroma in continuity of the posterior branch of the sural nerve with preservation of the sural nerve itself via microdissection, which we believe has not been described previously in the literature.
Accessory soleus muscle is an uncommon anatomical variant that may present as a soft-tissue mass in the posteromedial region of the ankle. It is congenital in origin but usually presents in the second or third decade of life. Although it is a rare entity, accessory soleus muscle should be included in the differential diagnosis of soft-tissue swelling of the ankle. Awareness of the clinical presentation and specific findings of computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and electromyography help with diagnosis without surgical exploration. We describe a 30-year-old patient with accessory soleus muscle. Magnetic resonance imaging features of the case are described, and the literature is briefly reviewed. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 94(6): 587–589, 2004)
After resection of bone or amputation, postoperative stump breakdown occurs frequently. Furthermore, the altered mechanics with ambulation are difficult to control with bracing and orthoses alone. During the past 10 years, the peroneus brevis tendon has been transferred to various locations in the foot after resection of the fifth metatarsal base in an effort to provide continued balance between the supinatory and pronatory forces needed for a steady gait. In patients who have had a peroneus brevis tendon transfer, the rate of postoperative ulceration and the need for further bony resection is minimal. Analysis of the biomechanical influences and effects of different anatomical placements of the transferred tendon reveals the importance of transfer of the peroneus brevis tendon. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 94(6): 594–603, 2004)
Posterior tibial tendinopathy (PTT) is the most common cause of acquired (progressive) flatfoot deformity in adults. To date, PTT research has mainly focused on management rather than on causal mechanisms. The etiology of PTT is likely to be multifactorial because both intrinsic and extrinsic risk factors have been reported. We sought to critically evaluate reported etiologic factors for PTT and consider the concept of genetic risk factors.
A detailed review of the literature published after 1936 was undertaken using English-language medical databases.
No clear consensus exists as to the relative importance of the risk factors reported, and neither has any consideration been given to a possible genetic basis for PTT.
To date, studies have examined various intrinsic and extrinsic risk factors implicated in the etiology of PTT. The interaction of these factors with an individual's genetic background may provide valuable data and help offer a more complete risk profile for PTT. A properly constructed genetic association study to determine the genetic basis of PTT would provide a novel and alternative approach to understanding this condition.
The authors present a case of a traumatic extensor hallucis longus tendon rupture sustained 2 days after hallux valgus and hammer toe correction. The ruptured tendon, separated by a 6-cm defect, was repaired using a fascia lata allograft. This case demonstrates a serious complication of a commonly performed procedure and a salvage technique useful for dealing with large tendon defects. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 92(8): 467-470, 2002)
Background: A case-control study was conducted to compare static plantar pressures and distribution of body weight across the two lower limbs, as well as the prevalence of gastrocnemius soleus equinus, in children with and without calcaneal apophysitis (Sever’s disease).
Methods: The participants were 54 boys enrolled in a soccer academy, of which eight were lost to follow-up. Twenty-two boys with unilateral Sever’s disease comprised the Sever’s disease group and 24 healthy boys constituted a control group. Plantar pressure data were collected using pedobarography, and gastrocnemius soleus equinus was assessed.
Results: Peak pressure and percentage of body weight supported were significantly higher in the symptomatic feet of the Sever’s disease group than in the asymptomatic feet of the Sever’s disease group and the control group. Every child in the Sever’s disease group had bilateral gastrocnemius equinus, while nearly all children in the control group had no equinus.
Conclusions: High plantar foot pressures are associated with Sever’s disease, although it is unclear whether they are a predisposing factor or a result of the condition. Gastrocnemius equinus may be a predisposing factor for Sever’s disease. Further research is needed to identify other factors involved in the disease and to better understand the factors that contribute to abnormal distribution of body weight in the lower limbs. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 101(1): 17–24, 2011)
Multiple surgical procedures have been described for the correction of equinus deformity. We present a review of the anatomy, biomechanics, and clinical assessment of equinus. In addition, we provide a detailed surgical technique for gastrocnemius soleus recession and introduce an anatomical guide for surgical treatment. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 95(1): 18–25, 2005)
Ankle equinus has been proposed to be associated with lower-extremity pathology. Physiologically normal measurements have been quantified in various populations. Forty high-school athletes (16 girls and 24 boys) without a history of ankle injury had ankle dorsiflexion measured with the knee extended and flexed by an experienced evaluator using a goniometer with the subjects supine. The group mean ± SD dorsiflexion for the right ankle was 0.35° ± 2.2° with the knee extended and 4.88° ± 3.23° with the knee flexed. The values for the left ankle were –0.6° ± 2.09° and 4.68° ± 3.33°, respectively. There were no statistically significant differences between limbs using the Student t-test. In girls, values for right and left ankle dorsiflexion were 0.19° ± 2.1° and –0.7° ± 2.3°, respectively, with the knee extended and 4.88° ± 3.59° and 4.88° ± 3.07°, respectively, with the knee flexed. In boys, these values were 0.46° ± 2.3° and –0.5° ± 1.98° with the knee extended and 4.88° ± 3.04° and 4.54° ± 3.55° with the knee flexed. There were no statistically significant differences between boys and girls. Ankle dorsiflexion in asymptomatic adolescent athletes is approximately 0° with the knee extended and just less than 5° with the knee flexed. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 93(4): 312-314, 2003)
There are no conclusive data to support the contention that diabetic patients have an increased frequency of ankle equinus compared with their nondiabetic counterparts. Additionally, a presumed contributing cause of foot ulceration is ankle joint equinus. Therefore, we sought to determine whether persons with diabetes have a higher prevalence of ankle joint equinus than do nondiabetic persons.
A prospective pilot survey of 102 outpatients (43 diabetic and 59 nondiabetic) was conducted. Demographic and historical data were obtained. Each patient underwent a standard lower-extremity examination, including the use of a biplane goniometer to measure ankle joint range of motion.
Equinus, defined as ankle dorsiflexion measured at 0° or less, was found in 24.5% of the overall population. In the diabetes cohort, 16 of 43 patients (37.2%) were affected compared with 9 of 59 nondiabetic participants (15.3%) (P = .011). There was a threefold risk of equinus in the diabetic population (odds ratio [OR], 3.3; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.28–8.44; P < .013). The equinus group had a history of ulceration in 52.0% compared with 20.8% of the nonequinus group (P = .003). Equinus, therefore, imparted a fourfold risk of ulceration (OR, 4.13; 95% CI, 1.58–10.77; P < .004). We also found a 2.8 times risk of equinus in patients with peripheral neuropathy (OR, 2.8; 95% CI, 1.11–7.09; P < .029).
Equinus may be more prevalent in diabetic patients than previously reported. Although we cannot prove causality, we found a significant association between equinus and ulceration. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 102(2): 84–88, 2012)