Peripheral nerve blocks at the ankle have long been used for foot surgery. However, when local foot and ankle blocks are inappropriate or contraindicated, general and spinal anesthesia are the common alternatives. Both have disadvantages and require added equipment and monitors. Combined popliteal and saphenous nerve blocks at the knee can offer a desirable alternative to general and spinal anesthesia for foot and ankle surgery. In addition, popliteal and saphenous nerve blocks provide anesthesia of the entire lower leg, thus permitting a greater variety of procedures to be performed. This article reviews the anatomical considerations, various block techniques, and surgical applications of this useful approach to lower-leg anesthesia. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 94(4): 368–374, 2004)
Given the age-related decline in foot strength and flexibility, and the emerging evidence that foot problems increase the risk of falls, established guidelines for falls prevention recommend that older adults have their feet examined by a podiatrist as a precautionary measure. However, these guidelines do not specify which intervention activities might be performed. Published in this special issue of JAPMA are nine high-quality articles, including seven original studies and two basic science reviews, focusing on the benefit and impact of footwear and foot and ankle interventions in reducing the risk of falling. The selected studies discuss various relevant questions related to podiatric intervention, including adherence to intervention; preference and perception of older adults in selecting footwear; benefit of insoles, footwear, and nonslip socks in preventing falls; fear of falling related to foot problems; benefit of podiatric surgical intervention; and benefit of foot and ankle exercise in preventing falls. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 103(6): 452–456, 2013)
We report three patients with diagnostic imaging findings that are consistent with Mueller-Weiss syndrome. Mueller-Weiss syndrome is a rare condition that involves osteonecrosis of the navicular bone in an adult. The characteristic findings for Mueller-Weiss syndrome include a dorsomedial dislocation along with the collapse of the lateral navicular bone, resulting in a comma-shaped configuration. Through these three case studies, we aim to familiarize both foot and ankle specialists and radiologists with the diagnostic imaging findings for Mueller-Weiss syndrome.
We sought first to determine the efficacy of lateral ankle fixation alone in maintenance of medial clear space and talar valgus in bimalleolar equivalent ankle fractures not receiving primary deltoid repair, and second to assess perceived outcomes via the Foot and Ankle Outcome Score. To our knowledge, no study has quantified the reduction of medial clear space and talar valgus in bimalleolar equivalent ankle fractures receiving lateral ankle fixation alone.
We compared preoperative, initial postoperative, and greater than 1-year follow-up radiographs of medial clear space and talar valgus in individuals who received lateral ankle fixation alone in bimalleolar equivalent ankle fractures. Subjective outcomes were measured via the Foot and Ankle Outcome Score.
Thirty-seven patients participated in the study and showed a statistically significant reduction of medial clear space and restoration of talar position, and maintenance with this fixation method during follow-up in patients with bimalleolar equivalent ankle fractures. Adjunctively, patients perceived their outcomes to be satisfactory, as demonstrated by the results of the Foot and Ankle Outcome Score.
We aimed to assess the efficacy of lateral ankle fixation in the maintenance of medial clear space and talar valgus reduction at midterm follow-up. Although some authors contend that primary deltoid repair in bimalleolar equivalent ankle fractures is warranted, these midterm study results suggest that isolated lateral ankle fixation is adequate for medial ankle stabilization in bimalleolar equivalent fractures, and thus primary deltoid repair is not indicated.
Bone marrow edema (BME) of the talus is a rare, mostly self-limiting cause of foot and ankle pain. We sought to investigate in patients with idiopathic BME of the talus the effectiveness of pulsed electromagnetic fields and to determine the effect of this therapy on magnetic resonance imaging findings.
Six patients with BME of the talus confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging were enrolled. Pain was quantified with a visual analog scale from 0 (no pain) to 10 (the worst pain imaginable). The clinical outcome was assessed using the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society scoring system. Treatment consisted of pulsed electromagnetic field stimulation 8 h/d for 30 days. The device used generated pulses 1.3 milliseconds in duration, with a frequency of 75 Hz and a mean ± SD induced electric field of 3.5 ± 0.5 mV.
The mean American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society score improved from 59.4 (range, 40–66) before treatment to 94 (range, 80–100) at the last follow-up. The visual analog scale score decreased significantly from 5.6 (range, 4–7) before treatment to 1 (range, 0–2) at the last follow-up. Magnetic resonance imaging showed that BME improved after 1 month of treatment and resolved completely within 3 months in 5 patients, with normal signal intensity and no signs of progression to avascular necrosis.
A significant reduction in BME area was associated with a significant decrease in pain within 3 months of beginning treatment.
We report on a rare case of foot and ankle clonus as the initial presentation of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in a young patient with no known history of HIV or AIDS and no significant past medical or social history. The patient came to the emergency department with a chief complaint of muscle spasms in his lower extremities and unsteadiness in gait. The patient was diagnosed as having bilateral ankle clonus. Work-up revealed an absolute lymphocyte CD4+ count of 18, an HIV viral load of 1,690,000, and a positive John Cunningham virus polymerase chain reaction in the cerebral spinal fluid, indicating that the patient had progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy and AIDS. The diagnosis of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy should be in the foot and ankle surgeon's differential diagnosis when a patient presents with neurological symptoms in the lower extremities.
Osteomyelitis of the calcaneus combined with a pathologic fracture is a rare and difficult presentation for any practicing foot and ankle surgeon. Treatment for achieving an aseptic nonunion involves a variety of steps, including surgical debridement, antibiotic administration, and fracture stabilization. In this case series, we report a novel technique for the treatment of a tongue-type calcaneal fracture in the setting of chronic osteomyelitis using the Biomet JuggerLoc bone-to-bone system for fixation.
The peroneus quartus muscle is an accessory muscle seen in the lateral compartment of the lower leg. Although the peroneus quartus muscle is asymptomatic in general, it sometimes becomes pathologic. We present the rare case of bilateral ankle pain with crepitation caused by the peroneus quartus muscle. Magnetic resonance imaging should be considered to assist with diagnosing this condition. Foot and ankle surgeons should consider it in the preoperative differential diagnosis when patients present with posterior ankle pain.
The quality of national society conferences is often assessed indirectly by analyzing the journal publication rates for the abstracts presented. Studies have reported rates from 67.5% to 76.7% for oral abstracts and 23.2% to 55.8% for poster abstracts presented at national foot and ankle society conferences. However, no study has evaluated the abstract to journal publication rate for the American Podiatric Medical Association's (APMA's) annual conference.
All presented abstracts from the 2010 to 2014 conferences were compiled. PubMed and Google Scholar searches were performed, and the number of abstracts presented, publication rate, mean time to publication, and most common journals of publication were determined. These results were then compared with those for the 2010 to 2014 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons' conferences.
Of 380 abstracts presented, 142 (37.4%) achieved publication, most often in the Journal of the American Podiatric Medical Association. The oral abstract publication rate was 45.2% (14 of 31), with a mean time to publication of 24.2 months (range, 0–47 months). The poster publication rate was 36.7% (128 of 349), with a mean time to publication of 16.3 months (range, 0–56 months). Significant differences were identified between the two societies.
The overall abstract to journal publication rate for the 2010 to 2014 APMA conferences was 37.4%, and, expectedly, oral abstracts achieved publication more often than posters. Moving forward, a concerted effort between competing societies seems necessary to increase research interest, institutional support, and formal mentorship for future generations of foot and ankle specialists.
This article presents a series of case reports to describe the technique of ankle joint manipulation and its effects on common problems of the foot and ankle. The relationship between motion and pain is described, as are the effects of muscular inhibition on the presence of joint restriction and their association with pain in various joints remote to the ankle joint. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 94(4): 395–399, 2004)