Background: Congenital brachymetatarsia is often treated with callus distraction. This technique is associated with a variety of complications. We investigated complications encountered in treatment of brachymetatarsia in four female patients and reviewed adjunctive procedures performed to treat these complications.
Methods: We reviewed five distraction osteogenesis procedures performed in four female patients with congenital shortening of the fourth metatarsal over a 3-year period. Serial radiographs were obtained weekly until bone consolidation was achieved, at which time the external fixator was removed. Follow-up ranged from 5 to 10 months.
Results: Three patients (four metatarsals) were satisfied with the cosmetic and functional outcomes of their procedure. One patient was dissatisfied with the cosmetic result owing to a short digit from a short proximal phalanx but was completely functional and resumed all of her normal activities. Complications associated with callus distraction were decreased range of motion and stiffness at the metatarsophalangeal joint, flexion deformity of the digit, angulation of the metatarsal, prolonged distraction time due to pain, fracture of the bone callus, pin-site infection, and an undesirable cosmetic appearance due to a short proximal phalanx. Adjunctive procedures were needed in some of these cases and yielded good results.
Conclusions: Callus distraction is an effective treatment for congenital shortening of the fourth metatarsal, but the procedure is associated with a number of complications. Because most patients proceed with surgery for cosmetic reasons, it is important to present the possible complications and the adjunctive surgical procedures that may be necessary for a desirable outcome. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 97(3): 189–194, 2007)
Background: Ultrasound-guided plantar fascia release offers the surgeon clear visualization of anatomy at the surgical site. This technique uses small arthroscopic dissecting instruments through a 0.5-cm incision, allowing the surgeon to avoid the larger and more tissue-disruptive incision that is traditionally used for plantar heel spur resection and plantar fascia releases.
Methods: Forty-one patients (46 feet) were selected for the study. The mean patient age was 47 years. Twenty-nine were considered obese with a body mass index greater than 30 kg/m2. Patients were functionally and subjectively evaluated 4 weeks after surgery using the American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society Ankle and Hindfoot Rating Scale.
Results: Results from the study show a significant improvement (P = .05 confidence level) 4 weeks postoperatively for the 41 patients (46 feet), compared to their preoperative condition. The mean pretest score was 33.6 (range 10–52); this score improved to 88.0 (range 50–100), 4 weeks postoperatively. There were no postoperative infections or complications.
Conclusions: The ultrasound-guided plantar fascia release technique is a practical surgical procedure for the relief of chronic plantar fascia pain because the surgeon is able to clearly visualize the plantar fascia by ultrasound. In addition, there is minimal disruption to surrounding tissue because small instruments are passed through a small 0.5-cm incision. The traditional open method of heel spur surgery, in contrast, uses a larger skin incision of 3 to 5 cm, followed by larger instruments to dissect to the plantar fascia. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 99(3): 183–190, 2009)
The deep plantar (D-PL) artery originates from the dorsalis pedis artery in the proximal first intermetatarsal space, an area where many procedures are performed to address deformity, traumatic injury, and infection. The potential risk of injury to the D-PL artery is concerning. The D-PL artery provides vascular contribution to the base of the first metatarsal and forms the D-PL arterial arch with the lateral plantar artery.
In an effort to improve our understanding of the positional relationship of the D-PL artery to the first metatarsal, dissections were performed on 43 embalmed cadaver feet to measure the location of the D-PL artery with respect to the base of the first metatarsal. Digital images of the dissected specimens were acquired and saved for measurement using in-house software. Means, standard deviations, and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated for all of the measurement parameters.
We found that the origin of the D-PL artery was located at a mean ± SD of 11.5 ± 3.9 mm (95% CI, 4.5–24.7 mm) distal to the first metatarsal base and 18.6% ± 6.5% (95% CI, 8.1%–43.4%) of length in reference to the proximal base. The average interrater reliability across all of the measurements was 0.945.
This study helps clarify the anatomical location of the D-PL artery by providing parameters to aid the surgeon when performing procedures in the proximal first intermetatarsal space. Care must be taken when performing procedures in the region to avoid unintended vascular injury to the D-PL artery.
An essential skill for podiatrists is conservative sharp debridement of foot callus. Poor technique can result in lacerations, infections and possible amputation. This pilot trial explored whether adding simulation training to a traditional podiatry clinical placement improved podiatry student skills and confidence in conservative sharp debridement, compared with traditional clinical placement alone.
Twenty-nine podiatry students were allocated randomly to either a control group or an intervention group on day 1 of their clinical placement. On day 4, the intervention group (n = 15) received a 2-hour simulation workshop using a medical foot-care model, and the control group (n = 14) received a 2-hour workshop on compression therapy. Both groups continued to learn debridement skills as opportunities arose while on clinical placement. The participants' debridement skills were rated by an assessor blinded to group allocation on day 1 and day 8 of their clinical placement. Participants also rated their confidence in conservative sharp debridement using a questionnaire. Data were analyzed using logistic regression (skills) and analysis of covariance (confidence), with baseline scores as a covariate.
At day 8, analysis showed that those in the intervention group were 16 times more likely to be assessed as competent (95% confidence interval, 1.6–167.4) in their debridement skills and reported increased confidence in their skills (mean difference, 3.2 units; 95% confidence interval, 0.5–5.9) compared with those in the control group.
This preliminary evidence suggests that incorporating simulation into traditional podiatry clinical placements may improve student skills and confidence with conservative sharp debridement.
Xerosis (dryness) of the foot is commonly encountered in clinical care and can lead to discomfort, pain, and predisposition to infection. Many moisturizing products are available, with little definitive research to recommend any particular formulation.
We compared two commonly prescribed moisturizing products from different ends of the price spectrum (sorbolene and 25% urea cream) for their effectiveness in reducing xerosis signs using the Specified Symptom Sum Score. A randomized clinical trial of parallel design was conducted over 28 days (February–May 2015) on 41 participants with simple xerosis. Participants, therapists, assessors, and data entry personnel were blinded to treatment, and allocation was determined via a randomization table.
Thirty-four participants completed the study (19 urea and 15 sorbolene), with one reporting minor adverse effects. There were statistically significant improvements in both groups after 28 days. Mean differences between pre and post scores were 3.50 (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.80 to 4.20) for the urea group and 2.90 (95% CI, 2.00 to 3.80) for the sorbolene group. There was a slightly lower mean posttreatment score in the urea group (1.16; 95% CI, 0.67 to 1.64) than in the sorbolene group (1.80; 95% CI, 1.25 to 2.35), but this difference was not significant (P ≤ .09). Effect size of difference was –0.48 (95% CI, –1.16 to 0.22).
In this study, there was no difference between using sorbolene or 25% urea cream to treat symptoms of foot xerosis. A recommendation, therefore, cannot be made based on efficacy alone; however, sorbolene treatments are invariably cheaper than urea-based ones.
In this prospective study, 30 patients (28 men and 2 women) with open ankle fractures were treated with early debridement and immediate stable internal fixation after anatomical reduction to achieve better functional results after early mobilization. The procedure was performed an average of 8 hours (range, 6–15 hours) after injury. According to the classification system of Gustilo and Anderson, 11 fractures (37%) were grade I, 12 (40%) were grade II, 5 (17%) were grade IIIA, and 2 (7%) were grade IIIB. Six complications occurred: four patients had superficial skin necrosis and two had loss of reduction, resulting in residual ankle stiffness. Twenty patients had excellent results, eight had good results, and two had fair results according to the modified criteria of Ketenjian and Shelton. We found that immediate debridement, anatomical reduction, and internal fixation of open ankle fractures leads to better functional results, especially in grade I and grade II injuries. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 96(2): 120–124, 2006)
The purpose of this article is to present reference guidelines to assist clinicians when treating diabetic patients with foot wounds. Diabetic patients with limb-threatening foot ulcers often have multiple coexisting medical conditions that frequently become impediments to the resolution of foot wounds. Each foot wound is unique and its etiology is multifactorial; therefore, each foot wound should be managed differently. The treatment algorithm presented in this article is divided into three categories: Algorithm I describes the treatment of septic foot wounds, which may be considered true podiatric surgical emergencies; Algorithm II describes the treatment of ischemic foot ulcers or gangrene with or without underlying osteomyelitis; and Algorithm III describes the treatment of neuropathic foot ulcers with or without underlying osteomyelitis. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 92(6): 336-349, 2002)
Diabetic foot ulcer (DFU) is a serious health problem. Major amputation increases the risk of mortality in patients with DFU; therefore, treatment methods other than major amputation come to the fore for these patients. Graft applications create an appropriate environment for the reproduction of epithelial cells. Similarly, epidermal growth factor (EGF) also stimulates epithelization and increases epidermis formation. In this study, we aimed to compare patients with DFU treated with EGF and those treated with a split-thickness skin graft.
Patients who were treated for DFU in the general surgery clinic were included in the study. The patients were evaluated retrospectively according to their demographic characteristics, wound characteristics, duration of treatment, and treatment modalities.
There were 26 patients in the EGF group and 21 patients in the graft group. The mean duration of treatment was 7 weeks (4-8 weeks) in the EGF group and 5.3 weeks (4-8 weeks) in the graft group (P < .05). In the EGF group, wound healing could not be achieved in one patient during the study period. In the graft group, no recovery was achieved in three patients (14.2%) in the donor site. Graft loss was detected in four patients (19%), and partial graft loss was observed in three patients (14.2%). The DFU of these patients were on the soles (85.7%). These patients have multiple comorbidities.
EGF application may be preferred to avoid graft complications in the graft area and the donor site, especially in elderly patients with multiple comorbidities and wounds on the soles.
A prospective study was performed to examine the performance of bone scintigraphy in the earliest stage of soft-tissue foot ulceration with potential risk for progression to osteomyelitis. Twenty-three podiatry clinic patients with new or recurrent foot ulcers but negative plain film radiographs of the foot underwent 24 (one patient was studied twice) multiphase bone scans (flow, blood pool, and 3- and 24-hour delayed images) that were visually scored for severity of increased uptake on a scale of 0 to 3+, with 0 indicating normal and 3+ indicating severe. Twenty-one scans (88%) showed abnormal uptake on at least one phase, with 17 (71%) having increased bone uptake on late images. Ulcer healing without complications occurred in 20 cases (83%), whereas 4 cases had adverse outcomes, 3 requiring surgical resection for failure to heal and 1 having radiographic progression to frank osteomyelitis. All three patients whose bone scans showed severe abnormal uptake had an adverse clinical outcome. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 93(2): 91-96, 2003)
A percutaneous antibiotic delivery technique (PAD-T) used for the adjunctive management of osteomyelitis is presented.
This surgical technique incorporates a calcium sulfate and hydroxyapatite (calcium phosphate) bone void filler acting as a carrier vehicle with either an antibiotic or an antifungal medicine, delivering this combination directly into the area of osteomyelitis.
The benefit of the PAD-T is reviewed with a case presentation of a successfully treated calcaneal osteomyelitis.
No previously reported PAD-T using a simple bone cortex incision in the adjunctive treatment of osteomyelitis has been reported. The PAD-T safely and effectively uses a calcium sulfate and hydroxyapatite bone void filler carrier vehicle to deliver either an antibiotic or an antifungal medicine directly into the area of osteomyelitis.