Acute dysvascular limb in young adults is a rare entity. Diagnosis is often difficult because symptoms are not recognized as ischemic. The most common causes of this condition are premature atherosclerosis, thromboangiitis obliterans, microemboli, popliteal entrapment syndrome, collagen vascular disease, Takaysu's arteritis, and coagulopathy. A case study is presented to illustrate the disease process. A systematic approach to diagnosis, consisting of history and physical examination, palpation and auscultation of peripheral pulses at rest and following exercise, and noninvasive vascular examination at rest and following exercise, is recommended. Suggestion of an ischemic condition following noninvasive studies should be followed up with an arteriogram. The prognosis is dependent on the underlying etiology of the ischemia, early detection, and appropriate treatment.
Surgical matrixectomies and phenol alcohol matrixectomies have been effective in eliminating certain nail conditions. The complication rate is at an acceptable level; however, there is a need for comparison to other techniques, such as negative galvanism, trephine, osteotripsy, and laser ablation. Of the 353 patients in this study, two were known diabetics who were seen preoperatively by a vascular surgeon for vascular studies and by their internist. Both consultants agreed that the patients would heal. Both patients healed without complications. The author described the use of a modified Frost partial matrixectomy and modified Fowler total matrixectomy in this review. The phenol alcohol technique had a total complication rate of 9.6%, as did the partial matrixectomy. The total matrixectomy had an overall complication rate of 10.9%.
A second case of compartment syndrome affecting the dorsal aspect of the foot has been presented. The syndrome was arrested by fasciotomy. There were no permanent neurologic, vascular, or musculoskeletal sequelae. Although techniques exist to obtain quantitative measurements of intracompartmental pressure, the diagnosis rests heavily on clinical assessment. Practitioners who encounter trauma victims must recognize the symptoms of the condition and be familiar with the procedures necessary to interrupt it.
Skin grafting is a useful adjunct to treating open wounds. It not only provides rapid wound coverage, but also eliminates the pain and the risk of further infection associated with open wounds. A successful skin graft take requires a well vascularized and relatively sterile bed, as well as complete resolution of any surrounding infection. The author reviews the indications and techniques for obtaining a successful skin graft take.
A pedal complication of Milroy's disease has been presented. With a history of multiple debridement procedures as in this case, there is the risk of recurrent infections and the possibility of permanent vascular compromise, particularly with respect to the thin pedal skin on the dorsal aspect. When the toes are recurrently involved with infection, a patient may be best served with a transmetatarsal amputation using a skin flap on the plantar aspect.
Dermatologic, vascular, neurologic, and musculoskeletal complications are common among persons with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). These manifestations frequently involve the lower extremities and may be the initial presenting symptoms of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. It is important that practitioners of podiatric medicine be aware of these syndromes to facilitate early diagnosis of AIDS and to provide the best possible care for immunodeficient patients. The author provides a review of the manifestations of AIDS frequently encountered in podiatric practice, along with guidelines for treatment.
Theories about the nature of cavernous hemangiomas have been reviewed. Most authors believe that such vascular tumors are congenital. The influence of pregnancy on the growth of these tumors was exemplified in a case report, and explanatory mechanisms were offered. Occurrences of cavernous hemangiomas that involve the foot were reported in the literature, ranging from 4.9% to 28.5% of all cases reviewed. X-ray findings of phleboliths and the importance of angiography in planning treatment were emphasized. In the authors' case report, a satisfactory surgical result was obtained in a plantar foot lesion that would otherwise have required amputation.
Reflex sympathetic dystrophy syndrome is a troublesome, complex disorder that presents with chronic, unexplained aching or burning pain, the intensity of which is incommensurable with the original injury. Six diagnostic criteria have been described by Genant et al: pain and tenderness in the extremities; swelling of soft tissue; diminished motor function; trophic skin changes; vasomotor instability; and patchy osteoporosis. Currently, the most widely accepted etiology is an initial vasomotor reflex spasm occurring after an injury to the extremity, followed by a loss of vascular tone, persistent vasodilation, and rapid bone resorption.
Administration of air under the skin produced a pouch wall that closely resembled a synovium in that the inner lining was made up of macrophages and fibroblasts. Administration of 1% carrageenan directly into the 7-day-old air pouch produced an inflammation characterized by an increased number of mast cells in pouch fluid as well as an increase in wall vascularity. A punch biopsy weight of the pouch wall did not reveal an increase in 1% carrageenan-treated animals. However, a 10% Aloe vera treatment of carrageenan-inflamed synovial pouches reduced the vascularity 50% and the number of mast cells in synovial fluid 48%. The pouch wall punch biopsy weight was increased by A. vera, which was verified by histologic examination of the inner synovial lining. Aloe vera stimulated the synovial-like membrane, as evidenced by an increased number of fibroblasts, suggesting that A. vera stimulated fibroblasts for growth and repair of the synovial model. The synovial air pouch can be used to study simultaneously the acute anti-inflammatory and fibroblast stimulating activities of A. vera.
Fifteen percent of individuals with diabetes will likely develop foot ulcers in their lifetime, and approximately 15% to 20% of these ulcers are estimated to result in lower extremity amputation. Techniques to prevent lower extremity amputation range from the simple but often neglected foot inspection to complicated vascular and reconstructive foot surgery. Appropriate management can prevent and heal diabetic foot ulcers, thereby greatly decreasing the amputation rate and medical care costs. Prevention is the key to treatment. The author discusses general guidelines for foot screening and identifies three specific goals for prevention of amputation: 1) identification of at risk individuals needing prevention and the specific factors placing them at risk; 2) protection of the foot against the adverse effects of external forces (pressure, friction, and shear); and 3) reduction of the incidence of diabetic foot ulcers through educational programs.