External fixation was used to reduce or arrest progressive degeneration in 28 patients with Charcot’s foot dislocations. Adjunctive procedures included tendo Achilles lengthening and application of an external bone stimulator. Advantages of using external fixation are that surgeries are usually performed percutaneously and that most patients are weightbearing in 10 to 14 days. There was no incidence of pin tract infection or further foot collapse, with the longest follow-up period being 24 months. The authors propose that use of external fixation with bone stimulation may be an effective alternative method of treating the Charcot foot. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 92(8): 429-436, 2002)
In this study of people with diabetes mellitus and peripheral neuropathy, it was found that the feet of patients with a history of hallux ulceration were more pronated and less able to complete a single-leg heel rise compared with the feet of patients with a history of ulceration elsewhere on the foot. The range of active first metatarsophalangeal joint dorsiflexion was found to be significantly lower in the affected foot. Ankle dorsiflexion, subtalar joint range of motion, and angle of gait differed from normal values but were similar to those found in other studies involving diabetic subjects and were not important factors in the occurrence of hallux ulceration. These data indicate that a more pronated foot type is associated with hallux ulceration in diabetic feet. Further studies are required to evaluate the efficacy of footwear and orthoses in altering foot posture to manage hallux ulceration. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 96(3): 189–197, 2006)
The purpose of this study was to report the management and outcomes of ten patients with chronic Achilles tendon rupture treated with a turndown gastrocnemius-soleus fascial flap wrapped with a surgical mesh (Hyalonect).
Ten men with neglected Achilles tendon rupture were treated with a centrally based turndown gastrocnemius fascial flap wrapped with Hyalonect. Hyalonect is a knitted mesh composed of HYAFF, a benzyl ester of hyaluronic acid. The Achilles tendon ruptures were diagnosed more than 1 month after injury. The mean patient age was 41 years. All of the patients had weakness of active plantarflexion. The mean preoperative American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society score was 64.8.
The functional outcome was excellent. The mean American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society score was 97.8 at the latest follow-up. There were significant differences between the preoperative and postoperative scores. Ankle range of motion was similar in both ankles. Neither rerupture nor major complication, particularly of wound healing, was observed.
For patients with chronic Achilles tendon rupture with a rupture gap of at least 5 cm, surgical repair using a single turndown fascial flap covered with Hyalonect achieved excellent outcomes.
Background: StepIt is a device for active movement of the foot that simulates normal walking with calf muscle contractions.
Methods: In 40 healthy volunteers with predominantly office work and sitting conditions, StepIt was used regularly for 1 day, and the volume of the calf, approximated to a truncated cone, was measured before and after using StepIt. One leg was used as a control, and after 5 days, the exercise was repeated, with the other leg as the control.
Results: The volume of the leg increased during the day and the increase was significantly smaller in the leg that used StepIt.
Conclusions: By using a device for active foot movement in healthy people, it is possible, in some individuals, to reduce the swelling that occurs during sitting conditions. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 99(1): 20–22, 2009)
Nerve entrapment, common in diabetes, is considered an associated phenomenon without large consequence in the development of diabetes complications such as ulceration, infection, amputation, and early mortality. This prospective analysis, with controls, of the ulcer recurrence rate after operative nerve decompression (ND) offers an objective perspective on the possibility of frequent occult nerve entrapment in the diabetic foot complication cascade.
A multicenter cohort of 42 patients with diabetic sensorimotor polyneuropathy, failed pharmacologic pain control, palpable pulses, and at least one positive Tinel's nerve percussion sign was treated with unilateral multiple lower-leg external neurolyses for the indication of pain. All of the patients had healed at least one previous ipsilateral plantar diabetic foot ulceration (DFU). This group was retrospectively evaluated a minimum of 12 months after operative ND and again 3 years later. The recurrence risk of ipsilateral DFU in that period was prospectively analyzed and compared with new ulcer occurrence in the contralateral intact, nonoperated control legs.
Operated legs developed two ulcer recurrences (4.8%), and nine contralateral control legs developed ulcers (21.4%), requiring three amputations. Ulcer risk is 1.6% per patient per year in ND legs and 7% in nonoperated control legs (P = .048).
Adding operative ND at lower-leg fibro-osseous tunnels to standard postulcer treatment resulted in a significantly diminished rate of subsequent DFU in neuropathic high-risk feet. This is prospective, objective evidence that ND can provide valuable ongoing protection from DFU recurrence, even years after primary ulcer healing.
Over a 74-month period (∼6 years), 143 lower-extremity osteomyelitis locations in 125 patients were treated with a calcium sulfate/hydroxyapatite liquid bone void filler with antibiotic(s).
The osteomyelitis locations were treated with a percutaneous antibiotic delivery technique delivering intraosseous antibiotic followed by either oral or intravenous antibiotics for 4 weeks.
There was no recurrence of osteomyelitis in 96.15% of the treatable patients. Outcomes classified by the Cierny-Mader clinical classification are discussed as well.
A bone void filler with antibiotic(s) using the percutaneous antibiotic delivery technique is a safe, reliable, and effective means to treat lower-extremity osteomyelitis with either oral or intravenous antibiotics for 4 weeks.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the surgical method of arc resection of soft-tissue nail fold combined with a shaped dressing for ingrown toenails. The surgical method involved the excision of nail fold granulation tissue and partial or total nail avulsion with preservation of its matrix. This surgical approach was applied to 20 consecutive patients (age range, 11–30 years) admitted to the hospital from January 1, 2014, to December 31, 2015. For assessment of the method, the operative technique, dressing change, and postoperative wound healing were recorded by photography. Finally, we evaluated the therapeutic effects by calculating the recurrence rate and nail groove expansion rate. Twenty patients with 38 surgical sites in 26 toes were analyzed; there was no recurrence at 3, 6, and 12 months. There was a statistically significant difference in the groove expansion rate at different time points. We measured the wound distance on postoperative day 1 compared with the day of healing and found that the method of shaped dressing could expand the nail groove by more than 50% (P ≤ .05). The mean ± SD recovery time was 15.1 ± 2.4 days. Arc resection of the nail folds for ingrown toenails coupled with preservation of its matrix minimizes trauma and is easy to manipulate. Applying a shaped dressing after the operation further reduces the risk of recurrence and ensures enough growth space for the toenails.
Homeless people live in poverty, with limited access to public health services. They are likely to experience chronic medical conditions, such as diabetes mellitus; however, they do not always receive the necessary services to prevent complications. This study was designed to determine the effectiveness of a volunteer health service outreach to reduce disparity in diabetic foot care for homeless people.
The research was conducted on 21 patients with diabetic ulcers of 930 homeless people visited between 2008 and 2013. Each ulcer was treated with regular medication every week for a mean ± SD of 17.6 ± 12 months. The inclusion criteria were 1) homeless with a previous diagnosis of diabetes or a blood glucose level greater than 126 mg/dL at first check and 2) foot ulcer caused by diabetic vasculopathy or neuropathy. The efficacy of the interventions was assessed against the number of successfully cured diabetic feet based on a reduced initial Wagner classification score for each ulcer.
Clinical improvement was observed in 18 patients (86%), whose pathologic condition was completely resolved after 3 years and, therefore, no longer needed medication. One patient died of septic shock and kidney failure, and two patients needed amputation owing to clinical worsening of ulcers (Wagner class 4 at the last visit).
Most homeless people who have diabetes and diabetic foot encounter many difficulties managing their disease, and a volunteer health-care unit could be a suitable option to bridge these gaps.
Biochemical properties of the amniotic membrane help modulate inflammation and enhance soft-tissue healing. In controlled trials, the efficacy of dehydrated human amnion/chorion membrane (dHACM) allografts has been established. Our purpose is to describe our experience with using dHACM to treat nonhealing wounds of various etiologies.
We conducted a retrospective review of deidentified data from 117 consecutive patients treated in an outpatient clinic with dHACM allografts with wounds of various etiologies over 2 years. The decision to use advanced wound-care treatments is based on rate of healing observed after initiation of standard wound care and patient risk factors. Eligibility for treatments such as amniotic membrane allografts includes wounds without 50% reduction after 4 weeks, or earlier in patients deemed to be at high risk for nonhealing or with a history of chronic wounds. In micronized or sheet formulation, dHACM is applied to the wound weekly after sharp/mechanical debridement as necessary, and wound-care practices appropriate for wound type and location are continued.
Thirty-four percent of allograft recipients had diabetic foot ulcers, 25% had venous leg ulcers, 20% had surgical wounds, 14% had pressure ulcers, 6% had ischemic wounds, and 2% had traumatic wounds. Complete healing occurred in 91.1% of treated patients, with a mean ± SD number of weekly applications per healed wound of 5.1 ± 4.2.
In addition to wounds of diabetic origin, dHACM can significantly expedite healing in refractory wounds of varying etiologies.
Digital surgery is one of the most common types of surgery performed by foot and ankle surgeons. Flail toe is a complication that may occur after overaggressive resection arthroplasty of the proximal interphalangeal joint of the lesser toes. Correction of flail toe deformity has received little attention and has predominantly involved soft-tissue procedures. The authors’ preferred technique for the surgical correction of flail toe is to place a unicortical autogenous bone graft (harvested from the ipsilateral calcaneus) within the revised proximal interphalangeal joint of the lesser toes to create a distraction arthrodesis. This technique allows restoration of digital length, stability, and purchase. A retrospective review of 22 such procedures in 13 patients is presented, along with a literature review of other procedures and a description of the authors’ current surgical technique and postoperative management protocol. Overall success using the authors’ procedure was 82%. Complications occurred in three patients, with one of the grafts showing complete resorption and two requiring additional surgical intervention owing to nonunion and malunion of toes. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 93(3): 167-173, 2003)