Medication hypersensitivity is a constant variable that podiatric physicians face during their professional day. To avoid potential patient harm, an understanding of penicillin and cephalosporin hypersensitivities as it pertains to podiatric medicine needs to be achieved. To accomplish this, a narrative describing the signs, symptoms, and immunologic mechanisms for the basis of penicillin and cephalosporin drug hypersensitivities is presented. Second, specific medical literature serving as clinical-based evidence to support the prescribing of cephalosporins in patients with documented penicillin allergy is presented. Finally, a review of the medical and legal literature describing health-care provider liability regarding subsequent drug hypersensitivity is presented. The information contained in this review allows for the evolving paradigm that permits the prescribing of selective cephalosporins to patients with a history of penicillin allergy as long as the allergic symptoms were not serious or life-threatening. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 98(6): 479–488, 2008)
An increased reliance on vancomycin to treat bacterial infections has led to the emergence of vancomycin-resistant organisms. The podiatric physician must select and use vancomycin with due caution. This article presents a general review of vancomycin’s pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, and dosing recommendations. Literature citations of clinically based evidence regarding the development and use of vancomycin nomograms are also presented. A vancomycin dosing nomogram is introduced as an effective tool for the prescribing podiatric physician. Appropriate use of the information presented may improve patient outcomes and enable the podiatric physician to treat patients with less effort and at a lower cost. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 94(4): 389–394, 2004)
Podiatric Physicians have an ethical obligation to prescribe responsibly and cautiously to diminish and minimize the growth of drug adverse effects. Clinicians who prescribe, dispense, and administer medications must be vigilant in continually reviewing new Black Box Warnings for medications they use for their patients. The safe and appropriate selection of medications and prescribing strategies are presented. First, the concept and process for these FDA black box warnings are introduced. Then, to enrich the podiatric physician's body of knowledge, several FDA boxed warnings from 27 selected drug products that may be prescribed by podiatric physicians are presented graphically as a table. Finally, strategies for safe prescribing of these drugs with boxed warnings are presented.
Recognizing the existence of adverse drug effects of frequently prescribed drugs can empower a clinician with knowledge to avoid dangerous adverse effects that may result in hazardous, negative patient outcomes on either fracture healing or bone health. Pharmacovigilance reports have described the influence of medications, allowing for bone health to be quite unpredictable.
First, mechanisms found in the medical literature of potential drug adverse effects regarding fracture healing are presented. Second, the 100 most frequently prescribed medications in 2010 are reviewed regarding adverse effects on fracture healing. These reported adverse effects are evaluated for medical causation. Last, a data table describing the 100 reviewed medications and their reported effects on fracture healing is provided.
The actual number of different medications in the review was 72. Reported drug adverse effects on bone and fracture healing occurred with 59 of the 72 drugs (81.9%). These adverse effects are either described as a definitive statement or represented by postmarketing case reports. Thirteen of the 72 review drugs (18.1%) did not have any description of the possible effects on bone health. A total of 301 cases reports describing delayed union, malunion, and nonunion of fractures represent 31 of the 72 medications reviewed (43.1%).
This review offers the health-care provider information regarding potential adverse drug effects on bone health. Empowered with this information, clinicians may assist their patients in maximizing pharmacologic outcomes by avoiding these reported harmful adverse effects.
Approximately 10 million patients with traumatic wounds are treated in US emergency departments annually. The practice of wound cleansing or antiseptic management has a dichotomous history anchored in tradition and science. The merits of antiseptic fluid irrigation of traumatic wounds have received little scientific study. The purpose of this article is to critically evaluate the potential harm to patient outcome by the use of antiseptics on acute wounds. First, animal and cell culture data that describe the effects of topical antiseptics on wound healing are offered. Second, human case studies are presented to illustrate the potential harm of the indiscriminate use of antiseptics. Finally, data from previously published reviews are presented and evaluated for clinically based evidence to justify the current practice of antiseptic use in acute traumatic wounds. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 95(2): 148–153, 2005)