Tendinopathies are common musculoskeletal disorders that often develop because of chronic loading and failed healing. Tendinopathy related to systemic inflammation has been less extensively examined. Furthermore, although the use of biological agents to treat tendinopathies continues to gain popularity, the use of amniotic fluid–derived allografts in outpatient settings to resolve tendinopathies requires further evaluation.
The focus of this case report is a 25-year-old man who presented for a second opinion, having been diagnosed with Haglund deformity and Achilles tendinopathy. At the time of presentation, he complained of 10 of 10 pain to the right Achilles tendon. He was treating the injury conservatively with intermittent use of a controlled ankle motion boot and working with physiotherapy for approximately 5 months before presentation. Diagnostic ultrasound along with magnetic resonance imaging indicated distal thickening of the Achilles tendon, substantial fluid and edema in the Kager fat pad, and retrocalcaneal erosions with bursitis. Conservative management did not resolve the symptoms. As an alternative to surgery, the patient elected to undergo an Achilles tendon injection of an amniotic fluid–derived allograft. Before and after the initial injection, a microdialysis catheter was inserted into the Achilles peritendinous space to sample local levels of extracellular matrix enzymes and growth factors important for tendon remodeling. The patient received considerable relief with the initial injection, but did not return to full strength. Over the subsequent 8 weeks, the patient was followed closely and was able to return to daily activities with minimal pain. He was not able to return to a more active lifestyle without further Achilles pain, so a second amniotic fluid–derived allograft injection was performed 8 weeks after the initial injection.
Injection of the initial allograft resulted in significant improvement, but not complete resolution of pain and swelling. Microdialysis findings suggested a reduction in peritendinous levels of the cytokine interlukin-6 in addition to changes in extracellular matrix regulatory enzymes. After 8 weeks of additional conservative therapy and a second injection, no further improvement in pain was noted.
Based on the clinical improvement of symptoms in this individual and the changes seen with microdialysis methodology, the authors find the use of amniotic fluid–derived allograft injection for treatment of Achilles pain in this patient to be a viable treatment. Additional comorbidities of systemic inflammatory polyarthritis and possible seronegative disease were addressed after rheumatology consultation with a variety of medications that provided the patient additional relief of his symptoms. The patient ultimately moved and was lost to further follow-up.
Heel pain is a complaint frequently encountered in orthopedic clinics that has peculiar symptoms and may have various etiologic causes. Calcaneal spur fracture is an extremely rare cause of heel pain, and only four cases had previously been reported in the English language literature. We present a 45-year-old woman who had heel pain on her right foot after falling from a height onto the heel. Radiographic examination of her right foot showed a fractured calcaneal spur, which was successfully treated with conservative methods. Calcaneal heel pain is a complaint that may be attributable to many different etiologic causes, which often have specific symptoms, and we frequently encounter them in the orthopedic clinic. Calcaneal spur fracture after trauma should be remembered in the differential diagnosis of heel pain as a rare cause. Our case is the fifth reported case in the English language literature of this extremely rare condition.
A single case of a tibial sesamoid fracture in a softball player is reported here. A review of the literature confirms that this is an unusual and difficult problem to treat in the athletic population given the significant loads placed on the sesamoids during athletic activity. In the case presented, conservative care was not effective, and the athlete underwent surgical excision of the fractured sesamoid. With use of a postoperative orthosis and cleat modification, surgical management was successful and allowed the athlete to return to her athletic endeavors without restrictions in 8 weeks. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 97(1): 85–88, 2007)
Superficial acral fibromyxoma is a benign and slow-growing solitary soft-tissue neoplasm. Since being described in 2001, more than 100 cases of superficial acral fibromyxoma on the foot have been reported worldwide, none of which have been reported in the podiatric medical literature. Only nine cases of superficial acral fibromyxoma have been reported with presentation on the plantar heel. We report an unusual case of a 47-year-old Jamaican woman with a painful, erythematous nodule on her right heel that was diagnosed as superficial acral fibromyxoma.
Pyoderma gangrenosum is a skin disease characterized by wounds with blue-to-purple undermined borders surrounding purulent necrotic bases. This article reports on a patient with a circumferential, full-thickness, and partially necrotic lower-extremity ulceration of unknown etiology. Results of laboratory tests and arterial and venous imaging studies were found to be within normal limits. The diagnosis of pyoderma gangrenosum was made on the basis of the histologic appearance of the wound tissue after biopsy as a diagnosis of exclusion. Negative pressure wound therapy was undertaken, which saved the patient’s leg from amputation. Although negative pressure wound therapy has demonstrated efficacy in the treatment of chronic wounds in a variety of circumstances, this is the first documented use of this technique to treat an ulceration secondary to pyoderma gangrenosum. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 95(2): 171–174, 2005)
Heelys shoes are a novel athletic shoe with a concealed wheel. They have been popular among youths since their introduction in 2000. This case study serves as a first look into the biomechanical implications of Heelys shoes on gait. Pressure readings of the forefoot, midfoot, and rearfoot during ambulation in regular athletic-shoe walking, Heelys without the wheel walking, Heelys with the wheel walking, and Heelys skating with the wheel were recorded on a single subject using the Pedar X System. A visual gait analysis was also performed on the subject. The resulting data show increased forefoot and rearfoot pressure while walking with the Heelys with the wheel. The visual gait analysis showed a diminished heel strike and a more rapid forefoot loading. These results demonstrate that Heelys do in fact affect the biomechanics of gait. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 99(3): 247–250, 2009)
Glomus tumors are rare and benign vascular soft-tissue masses commonly found subungually in the foot. A glomus tumor typically manifests with a classic triad of pain, point tenderness, and cold sensitivity. This case report describes an atypical presentation of a glomus tumor in the soft tissue of the rearfoot in a 77-year-old man in the setting of urosepsis. The mass had enlarged progressively for 6 months. Originally misdiagnosed as a hemangioma based on magnetic resonance imaging and clinical appearance, an excisional biopsy was performed. The lesion was subsequently diagnosed histopathologically as a glomus tumor. This article discusses the statistics of glomus tumor and discusses the importance of the need to recognize the symptoms and clinical findings of both typical and atypical presentation of this abnormality in differentiation and differential treatment and risk management of benign and malignant soft-tissue masses.
Chondromyxoid fibroma is a rare, benign, aggressive bone tumor whose localization in the calcaneus is even rarer. We report a case of chondromyxoid fibroma in the calcaneus of a 10-year-old Iranian boy who was treated with extended curettage. After 3 years of follow-up, the patient had experienced no recurrence. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 97(3): 223–224, 2007)
Metatarsalgia is characterized by pain in the forefoot, which is associated with increased stress over the metatarsal head region. Despite the availability of a variety of conservative or surgical treatments for this condition, a few cases have demonstrated relapse or poor response to treatment. Pulsed radiofrequency (PRF) can provide pain relief in patients with diverse chronic conditions without causing neural injury. Recently, studies have shown that ultrasound-guided PRF may be beneficial for adhesive capsulitis, carpal tunnel syndrome, tarsal tunnel syndrome, and recalcitrant plantar fasciitis. Here, we describe a successful case of significant pain relief achieved by using ultrasound-guided PRF targeting the posterior tibial nerve (PTN) at the ankle of a 67-year-old woman with recalcitrant metatarsalgia. Ten minutes after ultrasound-guided PRF was applied at the PTN, the patient reported decreased pain (from 8 to 3 on a visual analogue scale) and did not exhibit any particular side effects. Three months after PRF application, the patient's visual analogue scale score remained more than 50% below the baseline, and she did not need additional conservative treatment during the follow-up period. To the best of our knowledge, we present the first case report using ultrasound-guided PRF at the PTN for treatment of recalcitrant metatarsalgia. We hypothesize that ultrasound-guided PRF at the PTN may be a potentially novel approach for treating recalcitrant metatarsalgia.
A cylindrical autogenous diaphyseal bone graft from the neighboring second and fifth metatarsals to correct brachymetatarsia of the third and fourth metatarsals was last described by Biggs in 1979. The authors present a literature review and case report for the treatment of the rare clinical entity of brachymetatarsia. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 91(7): 373-378, 2001)