The heel fat pad has a unique structure that is important for its shock-absorbing function. Loss of elasticity and changes in the thickness of the heel pad have been suggested as causes of heel pain. The present study of a population with heel pain shows the relationship between the thickness and elasticity of the heel fat pad and age, sex, obesity, duration of symptoms, subcalcaneal spurs, and noninvasive conservative treatment. Of 182 patients with heel pain who visited an outpatient clinic during a 3-year period, 50 (67 heels) fulfilling specific criteria were treated with a combination of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, contrast baths, stretching exercises, and change of footwear habits. Patients were followed up for 1 year. Delayed healing, increased thickness, and decreased elasticity of the heel fat pad were found in patients who were older than 40 years, who had symptoms for longer than 12 months before treatment, and who had a large subcalcaneal spur. An increase in heel fat pad thickness with aging and increased body weight reduce the elasticity of the heel fat pad. In addition, subcalcaneal spurs diminish the elasticity of the heel fat pad and play a role in the formation of heel pain. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 94(1): 47-52, 2004)
A percutaneous antibiotic delivery technique (PAD-T) used for the adjunctive management of osteomyelitis is presented.
This surgical technique incorporates a calcium sulfate and hydroxyapatite (calcium phosphate) bone void filler acting as a carrier vehicle with either an antibiotic or an antifungal medicine, delivering this combination directly into the area of osteomyelitis.
The benefit of the PAD-T is reviewed with a case presentation of a successfully treated calcaneal osteomyelitis.
No previously reported PAD-T using a simple bone cortex incision in the adjunctive treatment of osteomyelitis has been reported. The PAD-T safely and effectively uses a calcium sulfate and hydroxyapatite bone void filler carrier vehicle to deliver either an antibiotic or an antifungal medicine directly into the area of osteomyelitis.
Background: We investigated the effectiveness and durability of two types of plantar padding, the plantar metatarsal pad and the single wing plantar cover, which are commonly used for reducing forefoot plantar pressures.
Methods: Mean peak plantar pressure and impulse at the hallux and at the first, second, third, and fourth metatarsophalangeal joints across both feet were recorded using the two-step method in 18 individuals with normal asymptomatic feet. Plantar paddings were retained for 5 days, and their durability and effectiveness were assessed by repeating the foot plantar measurement at baseline and after 3 and 5 days.
Results: The single wing plantar cover devised from 5-mm felt adhesive padding was effective and durable in reducing peak plantar pressure and impulse at the first metatarsophalangeal joint (P = .001 and P = .015, respectively); however, it was not found to be effective in reducing peak plantar pressure and impulse at the hallux (P = .782 and P = .845, respectively). The plantar metatarsal pad was not effective in reducing plantar forefoot pressure and impulse at the second, third, and fourth metatarsophalangeal joints (P = .310 and P = .174, respectively).
Conclusions: These results imply limited applicability of the single wing plantar cover and the plantar metatarsal pad in reducing hallux pressure and second through fourth metatarsophalangeal joint pressure, respectively. However, the single wing plantar cover remained durable for the 5 days of the trial and was effective in reducing the peak plantar pressure and impulse underneath the first metatarsophalangeal joint.
This study analyzed the histologic effects of and host response to subdermally injected liquid silicone to augment soft-tissue cushioning of the bony prominences of the foot. A total of 148 postmortem and surgical specimens of pedal skin with attached soft tissue were obtained from 49 patients between July 1, 1974, and November 30, 2002. The longest period that silicone was in vivo was 38 years. The specimens were then processed into paraffin blocks and examined for specific findings. The variables considered included distribution of silicone within the tissue, host response, migration to regional lymph nodes, and viability of the host tissue after treatment. The host response to silicone therapy consisted primarily of delicate-to-robust fibrous deposition and histiocytic phagocytosis, with eventual formation of well-formed elliptic fibrous pads. The response in the foot appears different from that in the breast and other areas of the body previously studied. No examples of granulomas, chronic lymphoplasmacytic inflammation, or granulation tissue formation were seen, with only rare foreign-body giant cells present. Silicone injections in fat pads for the treatment of atrophy and loss of viable tissue show a histologically stable and biologically tolerated host response that is effective, with no evidence of any systemic changes. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 94(6): 550–557, 2004)
Elevated plantar pressures are an important predictor of diabetic foot ulceration. The objective of this study was to determine which clinical examination variables predict high plantar pressures in diabetic feet. In a cross-sectional study of 152 male veterans with diabetes mellitus, data were collected on demographics, comorbid conditions, disease severity, neuropathy status, vascular disease, and orthopedic and gait examinations. Univariate predictors included height, weight, body surface area, body weight per square inch of foot surface area, bunion deformity, hammer toe, Romberg’s sign, insensitivity to monofilament, absent joint position sense, decreased ankle dorsiflexion, and fat pad atrophy. Variables that remained significantly associated with high plantar pressures (≥4 kg/cm2) in multivariate analysis included height, body weight per square inch of foot surface area, Romberg’s sign, and insensitivity to monofilament. These results may be useful in identifying patients who would benefit from interventions designed to decrease plantar foot pressures. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 93(5): 367-372, 2003)
First-line therapy for diabetic patients presenting with intermittent claudication includes supervised exercise programs to improve walking distance. However, exercise comes with a variety of barriers and may be contraindicated in certain conditions. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether calf muscle electrostimulation improves claudication distance.
A prospective, one-group, pretest-posttest study design was used on 40 participants living with type 2 diabetes mellitus, peripheral artery disease (ankle brachial pressure index, <0.90), and calf muscle claudication. Calf muscle electrostimulation of varying frequencies (1–250 Hz) was prescribed on both limbs for 1-hour daily sessions for 12 consecutive weeks. The absolute claudication distance (ACD) was measured at baseline and after the intervention.
The recruited cohort (30 men and ten women; mean age, 71 years; mean ankle brachial pressure index, 0.70) registered a mean ± SD baseline ACD of 333.71 ± 208 m. After a mean ± SD of 91.68 ± 6.23 days of electrical stimulation, a significant mean ± SD increase of 137 ± 136 m in the ACD (P = .001, Wilcoxon signed rank test) was registered. Improvement was found to be sex independent, but age was negatively correlated with proportion of improvement (r = –0.361; P = .011, Pearson correlation test).
Electrical stimulation of varying frequencies on ischemic calf muscles significantly increased the maximal walking capacity in claudicants with type 2 diabetes. This therapeutic approach should be considered in patients with impaired exercise tolerance or as an adjunct treatment modality.
Spectral Doppler ultrasound examination of pedal arteries is one of the most frequently used noninvasive assessment methods by health-care professionals for the diagnosis and ongoing monitoring of people at risk for or living with peripheral arterial disease. The aim of this study was to determine the interrater reliability of the interpretation of spectral Doppler waveform analysis.
An interrater reliability study was conducted among five experienced podiatric physicians at the University of Malta Research Laboratory (Msida, Malta). A researcher who was not a rater in this study randomly selected 229 printed spectral Doppler waveforms from a database held at the University of Malta. Each rater independently rated the qualitative spectral waveforms.
Interrater reliability of the spectral Doppler waveform interpretation was excellent among the five experienced podiatric physicians (α = 0.98). The intraclass correlation coefficient showed a high degree of correlation in waveform interpretation across raters (P < .001).
This study demonstrates high interrater reliability in visual spectral Doppler interpretation among experienced clinicians. The current foot screening guidelines do not refer to spectral Doppler waveform analysis in their recommendations, which has been shown in studies to be an important modality for the diagnosis of peripheral arterial disease when ankle-brachial pressure indexes are falsely elevated in calcified arteries. If interpreted correctly, the information obtained can provide an indication of the presence of peripheral arterial disease and facilitate early management of this condition.
The major goal of investigating plantar pressure in patients with pain or those at risk for skin injury is to reduce pressure under prominent metatarsal heads, especially the first and second metatarsals. In research, the insole is used to reduce plantar pressure by increasing the contact area in the midfoot region, which, in turn, induces an uncomfortable feeling near the arch during walking. It is deduced that sock structure can redistribute plantar pressure distribution.
Seven sock types with seven structures (plain, single cross tuck, mock rib inlay, cross miss, mock rib, double cross tuck, and double cross miss) for the sole area were produced. A plantar pressure measurement device was used to measure plantar static pressure in ten participants. The barefoot plantar pressure distribution was compared with the plantar pressure distribution with socks.
In the seven sock samples, the mean plantar pressure of the cross miss and mock rib structures at high plantar pressure zones (toe and first through fourth metatarsal bone regions) were decreased, and, as a result, the pressure shifted to relatively low pressure zones (fifth metatarsal bone and midfoot regions).
These results indicate that wearing socks with cross miss and mock rib structures will reduce mean plantar pressure values compared with the barefoot condition in high plantar pressure zones. In general, the results suggest that mean plantar pressure is redistributed from high to low plantar pressure zones.
Over a 74-month period (∼6 years), 143 lower-extremity osteomyelitis locations in 125 patients were treated with a calcium sulfate/hydroxyapatite liquid bone void filler with antibiotic(s).
The osteomyelitis locations were treated with a percutaneous antibiotic delivery technique delivering intraosseous antibiotic followed by either oral or intravenous antibiotics for 4 weeks.
There was no recurrence of osteomyelitis in 96.15% of the treatable patients. Outcomes classified by the Cierny-Mader clinical classification are discussed as well.
A bone void filler with antibiotic(s) using the percutaneous antibiotic delivery technique is a safe, reliable, and effective means to treat lower-extremity osteomyelitis with either oral or intravenous antibiotics for 4 weeks.
Diabetic foot infection (DFI) is a serious, difficult-to-treat infection, especially when caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Vancomycin has been the standard treatment for MRSA infection, but lower response rates in MRSA skin infections have been reported. This analysis assessed the outcome and safety of daptomycin therapy in patients with a DFI caused by MRSA.
Using the Cubicin Outcomes Registry and Experience and the European Cubicin Outcomes Registry and Experience (2006–2009), 79 patients with MRSA DFI were identified and included in this analysis.
In the 74 evaluable patients, daptomycin was administered at a median dose of 4.8 mg/kg primarily every 24 hours (85.1%) and for a median of 15.0 days. Overall, 77.0% of the patients (57 of 74) received initial therapy with activity against MRSA; however, of patients receiving daptomycin as second-line therapy (n = 31), only 45.2% were treated with an antibiotic agent active against MRSA. The overall clinical success and treatment failure rates were 89.2% and 10.8%, respectively. Success with daptomycin therapy was higher in patients who had surgery and in those whose initial therapy was daptomycin. Eleven patients had 14 adverse events, two of which were possibly related to daptomycin use and led to discontinuation.
In a large real-world cohort of patients with MRSA DFI, daptomycin therapy was shown to be generally well tolerated and effective. The use of an anti-MRSA antibiotic agent should be considered when implementing first-line antibiotic drug therapy for DFI in countries where MRSA is common to avoid inappropriate empirical treatment and potential negative effects on outcomes.