Foot pain and lower-limb neuroischemia in diabetes mellitus is common and can be debilitating and difficult to treat. We report a comparison of orthotic materials to manage foot pain in a 59-year-old man with type 1 diabetes mellitus, peripheral neuropathy, peripheral arterial disease, and a history of foot ulceration. We investigated a range of in-shoe foot orthoses for comfort and plantar pressure reduction in a cross-sectional study. The most comfortable and most effective pressure-reducing orthoses were subsequently evaluated for pain relief in a single system alternating-treatment design. After 9 weeks, foot pain was completely resolved with customized multidensity foot orthoses. The outcome of this case study suggests that customized multidensity foot orthoses may be a useful intervention to reduce foot pain and maintain function in the neuroischemic diabetic foot. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 98(2): 143–148, 2008)
The etiology of ulcerations related to increased plantar pressure in patients with diabetes mellitus is complex but frequently includes a component of gastrocnemius soleus equinus. One viable treatment option is percutaneous tendo Achillis lengthening as a means of increasing dorsiflexory range of motion and decreasing forefoot shear forces. This article presents three case reports illustrating the importance of reducing plantar pressure as a crucial component of treatment of diabetic forefoot ulcerations. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 95(3): 281–284, 2005)
Although verrucous hyperplasia may be common in high-risk insensitive feet, the literature contains little discussion on this topic. Treatment of verrucous hyperplasia is aimed primarily at reducing the causative forces. In cases that result from edema, external compression has proved to be adequate. If verrucous hyperplasia on the foot results from frictional forces, then shoe modifications with proper fit, accommodative liners, or fillers in the case of amputation are necessary. In recalcitrant cases, excision of the affected tissue with local soft-tissue or graft coverage has been successful. We describe a 56-year-old man with verrucous hyperplasia. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 96(4): 348–350, 2006)
Metatarsus adductus is a structural foot deformity that is rarely associated with hallux valgus deformity. Surgical treatment is challenging, and multiple osteotomies are often required to correct both deformities. However, surgical impact must be considered, especially in elderly patients. We present a clinical case of a 76-year-old woman affected by hallux valgus and metatarsus adductus deformity. Multiple distal oblique osteotomies were performed on the first, second, and third metatarsals, coupled with Z-lengthening of the extensor digitorum longus tendons. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 100(3): 204–208, 2010)
Metatarsal stress fractures are common overuse injuries in athletes, military recruits, and ballet dancers, usually occurring in the second, third, and fourth metatarsals, respectively. Such fractures may also occur in a variety of other individuals, regardless of demographic characteristics, sex, or profession, and they are highly associated with excessive activity. Moreover, these types of fractures are usually diagnosed late and have poor outcomes. To our knowledge, there has been only one case report of an individual with stress fractures of all three central metatarsals in the same foot. We describe herein a racehorse training jockey who presented with multiple simultaneous metatarsal stress fractures in the same foot. We also discuss the possible mechanisms by which this entity occurred, as well as its management and outcome.
The Development of a Charcot Foot after Significant Weight Loss in People with Diabetes
Three Cautionary Tales
Medication to aid weight loss and weight loss surgery are becoming more commonly available for people with diabetes. As a result of profound weight loss, diabetes may go into remission and many biochemical and physical parameters improve. However, some of the end organ damage associated with diabetes may not improve, peripheral neuropathy being an example. We present three cases in people with diabetes and pre-existing peripheral neuropathy who had lost significant weight. They became more mobile and developed a Charcot foot despite their diabetes improving significantly. People who have lost significant weight should continue to monitor their feet because the risks of foot disease remain even if diabetes goes into remission.
We present a case report of runner’s hallux limitus and the effect of dynamic splinting in reducing contracture as measured by gait analysis. After 4 months of treatment with dynamic splinting, the patient regained 45° in active range of motion, and the gait analysis showed significant and beneficial changes. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 99(4): 367–370, 2009)
Exertional compartment syndrome in the foot is rarely reported and often confused with plantar fasciitis as a cause of arch pain in the running athlete. We describe a case involving a 19-year-old competitive collegiate runner who developed a chronic case of bilateral medial arch pain during training, which was initially diagnosed as plantar fasciitis but failed to respond to conventional treatment. After symptoms began to suggest exertional compartment syndrome, the diagnosis was confirmed by measuring an elevated resting pressure in the medial compartment of both feet. The patient underwent a bilateral medial compartment fasciotomy, which allowed a full return to activity, and has remained pain free after a 1-year follow-up.
Recognizing the Prevalence of Changing Adult Foot Size
An Opportunity to Prevent Diabetic Foot Ulcers?
Ill-fitting shoes may precipitate up to half of all diabetes-related amputations and are often cited as a leading cause of diabetic foot ulcers (DFU), with those patients being 5 to 10 times more likely to present wearing improperly fitting shoes. Among patients with prior DFU, those who self-select their shoe wear are at a three-fold risk for reulceration at 3 years versus those patients wearing prescribed shoes. Properly designed and fitted shoes should then address much of this problem, but evidence supporting the benefit of therapeutic shoe programs is inconclusive. The current study, performed in a male veteran population, is the first such effort to examine the prevalence and extent of change in foot length affecting individuals following skeletal maturity. Nearly half of all participants in our study experienced a ≥1 shoe size change in foot length during adulthood. We suggest that these often unrecognized changes may explain the broad use of improperly sized shoe wear, and its associated sequelae such as DFU and amputation. Regular clinical assessment of shoe fit in at-risk populations is therefore also strongly recommended as part of a comprehensive amputation prevention program.
A cylindrical autogenous diaphyseal bone graft from the neighboring second and fifth metatarsals to correct brachymetatarsia of the third and fourth metatarsals was last described by Biggs in 1979. The authors present a literature review and case report for the treatment of the rare clinical entity of brachymetatarsia. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 91(7): 373-378, 2001)