Acute rheumatic fever is a delayed inflammatory disease that follows streptococcal infection of the throat. Poststreptococcal reactive arthritis is a sterile arthritis associated with antecedent streptococcal infection in patients not fulfilling the Jones criteria for acute rheumatic fever. Poststreptococcal reactive arthritis has been reported to have lower-extremity predominance and, therefore, should be included in the differential diagnosis of patients with lower-extremity arthritis. A review of the literature, distinguishing poststreptococcal reactive arthritis from acute rheumatic fever, and treatment options are discussed here. A case report is also presented. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 96(4): 362–366, 2006)
Conservative treatment is generally successful in treating early tarsometatarsal joint arthritis. However, if such treatment fails, invasive arthrodesis or arthroplasty may be needed. Arthroscopy is a less invasive alternative and can provide a precise diagnosis of early osteoarthritis or cartilage injury. Furthermore, arthroscopic treatments such as microfracture, chondroplasty, or loose-body removal are expected to delay progression of the osteoarthritis. We describe a 52-year-old man with early tarsometatarsal joint arthritis after calcaneal fracture healing who underwent a successful arthroscopic microfracture for cartilage defects. Arthroscopic findings show cartilage defects on the fourth and fifth tarsometatarsal joints. The patient underwent shaving and microfracture. The patient continues to experience effective symptom relief 3 months after surgery.
Psoriatic arthritis is an uncommon, chronic inflammatory disease. Laboratory testing for psoriatic arthritis, although necessary for a complete work-up, is generally nondiagnostic for most patients. We present a case of a 26-year-old woman with unilateral plantar forefoot pain and swelling that was diagnosed as psoriatic arthritis. The diagnosis was made without the benefit of skin manifestations or definitive laboratory results, other than those from laboratory tests performed for an initial evaluation of acute-phase reactants. Radiographs showed nonspecific subchondral bone changes at a few metatarsophalangeal joints of the involved foot that suggested an inflammatory arthropathy. This case illustrates that the absence of specific serum markers for psoriatic arthritis can make its diagnosis challenging, especially in the absence of dermatologic changes of psoriasis.
The causes of late-onset pain after total ankle replacement (TAR) are various, and include infection, subsidence, polyethylene spacer failure, osteolysis, and wear. There are few reports of late-onset pain caused by gouty attacks after total knee and hip arthroplasty. In addition, no research has reported gouty attacks after total ankle arthroplasty. Therefore, we report a case of a gouty attack after total ankle replacement. A 43-year-old man presented with pain after total ankle arthroplasty performed 5 years previously. We found a white-yellow crystalline deposit within the synovial tissue during ankle arthroscopy, confirmed by histologic examination.
The talonavicular joint is a rare site of dislocation. Its etiology varies and can be the result of either acute trauma or a chronic degenerative process that most commonly occurs in patients with rheumatoid arthritis or Charcot arthropathy. Our aim is to highlight the relationship between the underlying pathology of talonavicular dislocations and the final outcome in the case of operative management.
We present three cases of talonavicular dislocation with the dislocation itself as the only common denominator, and a completely different etiology, natural history, treatment, and prognosis among them.
There was one case of a traumatic talocalcaneonavicular dislocation in a healthy individual, one case in a rheumatoid arthritis patient, and one case in a patient with diabetes mellitus. All patients were treated surgically. The outcomes were excellent, fair, and poor, respectively.
Among many factors that influence prognosis, it is equally critical to evaluate the overall background in which the dislocation occurs so as to apply the suitable treatment. The surgeon not only needs to treat the local incident but also appreciate the general medical condition to provide the best final outcome to the patient.
Triamcinolone acetonide is a synthetic glucocorticoid used to treat numerous acute and chronic inflammatory conditions. The various side effects of this drug from parenteral administration are well documented in the literature. In this study, three patients present with a rare side effect of violaceous dermal pigmentation. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this finding is rarely presented in the current literature. The purpose of this study is to provide awareness of a less-documented, delayed side effect from triamcinolone acetonide administration. Although all patients presenting in this study had a known history of autoimmune disease (eg, lupus, psoriatic arthritis) further research is needed to suggest a possible association between dermal violaceous change and the use of triamcinolone.
The three (medial, intermediate, and lateral) cuneiforms and their articulations in the foot are small and relatively well protected from injury. An isolated fracture of the lateral cuneiform is a rare finding. However, isolated injuries may occur as the result of direct trauma. We report a case of an isolated fracture of the lateral cuneiform that was not seen on initial radiographs and only became evident on plain radiographs 4 weeks after the injury. As each of the cuneiform bones articulates with four other bones in the midpart of the foot, persistent displacement of any fracture (subluxation or dislocation) may result in post-traumatic arthritis. We believe that in suspected cases with negative radiographic findings, further imaging (computed tomography or bone scanning) should be requested. Without the use of additional imaging techniques, many fractures may be misdiagnosed as ankle sprains or foot contusions, and patients may be discharged from the hospital. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 97(6): 483–485, 2007)
Calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystal deposition disease has various clinical features, and pseudogout is one of the six clinical forms. Chondrocalcinosis is the term used to describe the radiographic appearance of the disease. A review of the literature revealed that the appearance of this type of arthropathy in the foot is infrequent. We offer a review of the disease and report an atypical bilateral case of pseudogout in a patient 56 years of age without a history who presented with symptoms of arthritis localized in the first metatarsophalangeal joint associated with hallux valgus and was treated surgically. Radiographic evaluation of the feet did not reveal signs of chondrocalcinosis. The patient had no metabolic abnormalities, except for high uric acid values. Chemical analysis of the surgical samples demonstrated the presence of calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystals, confirming the diagnosis. We believe that arthropathy by deposition of calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate in the foot, although rare, must be considered in the podiatric physician’s differential diagnosis when a patient presents with articular pain in the foot associated or not with deformities. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 100(2): 138–142, 2010)
Over a time frame of less than 1 year, a 23-year-old competitive horseback rider experienced a midsubstance tear of both the tibialis anterior and extensor hallucis longus tendons without inciting injury. It was after the second spontaneous tear that the patient's recent diagnosis of Lyme disease became the likely culprit. Often, patients with chronic Lyme disease present with an elaborate clinical picture that can mimic many more common diagnoses such as septic arthritis, transient synovitis, ligamentous sprain, and various other traumatic injuries. With the pathognomonic erythema migrans rash reported to be present less than 50% of the time in late-stage infections, the diagnosis of Lyme disease can often be difficult, with a high rate of underdiagnosis. It is important that Lyme disease be included in the differential diagnosis of spontaneous tendon pathology, especially for physicians practicing in highly endemic areas. The treatment is relatively simple and successful—especially for an acute infection—and it is important to initiate treatment promptly to prevent disability.
Tillaux fracture is known to occur in adolescents once it happens during the transition period when the medial and central physis has finished closure, but the lateral physis is still opened. The trauma mechanism is typically external rotation ankle injury resulting in an avulsion fracture of the anterolateral tibial plafond. This fracture has rarely been reported in adults, especially associated with other injuries. We report a case of Tillaux fracture in an adult, associated with a Volkmann fracture and a Maisonneuve fracture, that were surgically treated with open reduction and internal fixation and had an excellent outcome. Recognizing and appropriately treating these injuries is key in the prevention of further degenerative arthritis and instability.