Addressing pressure reduction in the treatment of diabetic foot wounds is a critical component of therapy. The total-contact cast has proven to be the gold standard of treatment because of its ability to reduce pressure and facilitate patient adherence to the off-loading regimen. Removable cast walkers have proven to be as effective as total-contact casts in pressure reduction, but this has not translated into equivalent time to healing. A simple technique to convert the removable cast walker into a device that is not as easily detached from the lower extremity, thereby encouraging the use of this device over a 24-hour period, is presented in this article. The procedure involves wrapping the cast walker with cohesive bandage or plaster of Paris. In the authors’ opinion, this technique addresses many of the disadvantages of the total-contact cast, resulting in an adequate compromise in this aspect of care. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 92(7): 405-408, 2002)
Patients with diabetic neuropathy are subject to ulcerations that may be complicated by infection and gangrene, with subsequent risk of amputation. It is the job of the foot specialist to identify and manage these problems early to avoid the unfortunate complication of amputation regardless of the presenting condition of the patient’s limb. We shed light on the hypothesis that suggests that infection and gangrene in a diabetic patient aggravate the degree of ischemia (microvascular, macrovascular, or both) already present enough to endanger the viability of the surrounding tissues unless urgent drainage with decompression and debridement of the necrotic sloughs is performed, with consequent reduction of tissue pressure and improvement in circulation to the area. We present cases with severe infections leading to gangrene and ischemia, which were improved following surgical management with consequent improvement in tissue viability. In these cases, we demonstrate that immediate treatment of the wound despite the delayed presentation of the patients resulted in limb salvage with much less soft-tissue loss than expected before treatment. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 99(5): 454–458, 2009)
Wound debridement, when systematically performed, may be as important as off-loading in reducing the prevalence of chronic inflammatory by-products in a wound and thus in converting a chronic wound into an acute one. Although it has been suggested that aggressive surgical debridement of wounds may be beneficial, there have been few, if any, technical descriptions of this aspect of therapy. It is therefore the purpose of this article to describe the general principles, process, and technique of outpatient surgical debridement of noninfected, nonischemic neuropathic diabetic foot wounds performed at the authors’ institutions. The authors hope to foster further discussion leading to improvement in the process and the prevalence of such debridement. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 92(7): 402-404, 2002)
A prospective analysis was conducted of the amount of correction obtained and number of complications resulting from 31 endoscopic gastrocnemius recessions in 28 patients. The average amount of increase in ankle dorsiflexion was 18°. Few complications were encountered, with mild “soreness” and distal “bruising” being reported by four patients. The only other complaint was “weakness.” The endoscopic gastrocnemius recession is a minimally invasive technique with a low rate of complications that offers a comparable amount of correction to that of traditional open procedures in the treatment of gastrocnemius equinus. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 95(4): 410–413, 2005)
Hyperhidrosis is defined as excessive and uncontrollable sweating due to overactivity of the eccrine sweat glands. The first line of treatment for plantar hyperhidrosis consists of conservative therapies such as topical solutions (ie, antiperspirant applications and aluminum chloride preparations) and iontophoresis. When the patient has failed these standard treatments, the other available medical options are rather limited and not well tolerated. Botulinum toxin type A (Botox, Allergan Inc, Irvine, California) is a purified neurotoxin complex approved by the US Food and Drug Administration in 2004 for multiple medical conditions, including severe primary axillary hyperhidrosis that failed conservative topical therapies. Few recent clinical studies have suggested that botulinum toxin is effective in the treatment of plantar hyperhidrosis. In this case study, two patients received intradermal injections of botulinum toxin type A into the plantar aspect of both feet. A 3-month follow-up evaluated the efficacy of botulinum toxin type A by subjectively assessing the amount of residual sweating. In these two patients, botulinum toxin type A was an effective and safe treatment for plantar hyperhidrosis. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 98(2): 156–159, 2008)
Medial forefoot pain, or midarch pain, is usually attributed to plantar fasciitis. The authors present their findings of a previously unreported nerve entrapment of the medial proper plantar digital nerve (MPPDN). Ten fresh-frozen cadaveric specimens were analyzed for anatomical variance in the nerve distribution of the MPPDN. In addition, clinical results from a retrospective review of nine patients who underwent surgical nerve decompression of the MPPDN are presented. Significant anatomical variance was found for the MPPDN in the cadaveric dissection of 10 fresh-frozen specimens. Nine patients with a clinical diagnosis of entrapment of the MPPDN all obtained excellent pain relief with surgical external neurolysis. Only one complication occurred: a hypertrophic scar formation that was successfully treated with intralesional steroid injections. The authors believe that this MPPDN entrapment is often overlooked or misdiagnosed as plantar fasciitis. Surgical peripheral nerve decompression of this nerve can provide positive outcomes for patients suffering from midarch foot pain caused by this pain generator.
A single prospective group study in adults was performed using a new bioabsorbable screw, the NuGen Fx screw (Linvatec Biomaterials Ltd, Tampere, Finland). This multisite study included five sites and 50 patients (10 patients per site). The goal of this study was to evaluate the efficiency and safety of the NuGen Fx screw system in the fixation of osteotomies, arthrodeses, and fractures in the foot and ankle. We discuss our own results from 12 patients treated at the Kentucky Podiatric Residency Program at Norton Audubon Hospital, Louisville. The number of patients in the study, screw sizes, instrumentation, radiologic evaluation findings, and our overview of this implant are presented. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 96(1): 73–77, 2006)
Osteomyelitis of the calcaneus combined with a pathologic fracture is a rare and difficult presentation for any practicing foot and ankle surgeon. Treatment for achieving an aseptic nonunion involves a variety of steps, including surgical debridement, antibiotic administration, and fracture stabilization. In this case series, we report a novel technique for the treatment of a tongue-type calcaneal fracture in the setting of chronic osteomyelitis using the Biomet JuggerLoc bone-to-bone system for fixation.
After resection of bone or amputation, postoperative stump breakdown occurs frequently. Furthermore, the altered mechanics with ambulation are difficult to control with bracing and orthoses alone. During the past 10 years, the peroneus brevis tendon has been transferred to various locations in the foot after resection of the fifth metatarsal base in an effort to provide continued balance between the supinatory and pronatory forces needed for a steady gait. In patients who have had a peroneus brevis tendon transfer, the rate of postoperative ulceration and the need for further bony resection is minimal. Analysis of the biomechanical influences and effects of different anatomical placements of the transferred tendon reveals the importance of transfer of the peroneus brevis tendon. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 94(6): 594–603, 2004)
Background: Comparing the dynamic pedobarographic patterns of individuals is common practice in basic and applied research. However, this process is often time-consuming and complex, and commercially available software often lacks powerful visualization and interpretation tools.
Methods: We propose a simple method for displaying pixel-level pedobarographic deviations over time relative to a so-called reference pedobarographic pattern. This novel method contains four distinct automated preprocessing stages: 1) normalization of pedobarographic fields (for foot length and width), 2) temporal normalization, 3) a pixel-level z-score–based calculation, and 4) color coding of the normalized pedobarographic fields. Group and patient-level comparisons were illustrated using an experimental data set including diabetic and nondiabetic patients.
Results: The automated procedure was found to be robust and quantified distinct temporal deviations in pedobarographic fields.
Conclusions: The advantages of the novel method cover several domains, including visualization, interpretation, and education.