Verrucae (warts) are the most common viral infections of the skin, affecting 7% to 10% of the general population. Typically caused by human papillomavirus type 1, plantar warts manifest as benign proliferation of the epithelial cells on the feet. It has been cited that up to one-third of nongenital warts become recalcitrant, and biopsy is often required to confirm diagnosis and direct appropriate treatment. These treatments can vary from various types of oral medications, acids, ablative modalities, and injections. In this article, we present a case of a recalcitrant plantar wart that appeared to circumferentially spread from the initial site after first-line treatment and presumed resolution with the product cantharidin. The development of ring warts is a known complication associated with cantharidin use, with little described rationale to the presentation.
The foot is rarely the focus of osteoid osteoma, and only a few of those cases are related to the fifth metatarsal. The present case demonstrates that atypical symptoms with suspicious findings on plain radiographs that are not associated with trauma must be analyzed carefully to determine the nature of the lesion and perform the precise treatment to obtain and sustain the cure. A 29-year-old man presented to the outpatient clinic with a 2-year history of chronic pain in the lateral aspect of his left forefoot. The onset was not related to trauma, surgery, local infection, osteomyelitis, or another entity regarding the proximal fifth metatarsal. The patient noted that the pain was aggravated at night and typically subsided with the use of salicylates or other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Initial plain radiographs demonstrated cortical thickening and a lytic lesion at the proximal diaphysis of the fifth metatarsal. Because the pain relief was transient, we suspected an osteoid osteoma lesion, and subsequent magnetic resonance imaging manifested pathognomonic signs of subperiosteal osteoid osteoma. Diagnosis was followed by planning of the surgery that ended the patient's symptoms.
We report on a rare case of foot and ankle clonus as the initial presentation of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in a young patient with no known history of HIV or AIDS and no significant past medical or social history. The patient came to the emergency department with a chief complaint of muscle spasms in his lower extremities and unsteadiness in gait. The patient was diagnosed as having bilateral ankle clonus. Work-up revealed an absolute lymphocyte CD4+ count of 18, an HIV viral load of 1,690,000, and a positive John Cunningham virus polymerase chain reaction in the cerebral spinal fluid, indicating that the patient had progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy and AIDS. The diagnosis of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy should be in the foot and ankle surgeon's differential diagnosis when a patient presents with neurological symptoms in the lower extremities.
There are few reported cases of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma metastasis to bone in the lower extremities. The authors present a case of cutaneous B-cell lymphoma thought to be in remission, with metastasis to the first metatarsal head with involvement in the synovial tissue of the first metatarsophalangeal joint. Following excision of the lesion, no further treatment was determined to be necessary. The patient was to be observed for local recurrence.
Osteoid osteomas account for approximately 3% to 10% of primary bone tumors and are found most commonly in the cortical, diaphyseal regions of long tubular bones. These osteoblastic, benign tumors are usually seen in males, in the second to third decade, most often in the long bones of the lower extremity. The literature describes the limited encounters with osteoid osteomas of the pedal digital phalanx, especially in the pediatric population. Here, a case report details a juvenile patient with an osteoid osteoma tumor of the distal phalanx in the right second digit that was treated with complete distal phalanx excision in toto, eliminating the patient's pain and symptoms quickly after surgery. Further the literature is reviewed for other examples of this pathology in the similar clinical setting.
Lymphangioma-like Kaposi's sarcoma (LLKS) is a rare histologic variant of KS. Kaposi's sarcoma is also known as human herpesvirus type 8. The clinical presentation of the LLKS lesion is highly unusual and similar to that of classic KS but with multinodular vascular tumors and lymphedema. We present a 63-year-old native Haitian man with multiple slowly progressive exophytic ulcerated lesions covering more than 60% of his left lower extremity with no systemic involvement. Much confusion surrounded the clinical presentation of these wounds, and we postulated several differential diagnoses. Herein we describe the evaluation, clinical appearance, and progression of LLKS. Due to the rarity of LLKS, treating physicians need to be aware of the clinical presentation and diagnostic criteria of this variant. Despite being incurable, early diagnosis of LLKS can lead to long-term treatment options and a major reduction in symptoms.
We present a case of a 59-year-old male veteran with a chronic history of right foot soft-tissue mass that was causing pain in his shoes, but not functional or neurologic symptoms. Excision of the mass and pathologic evaluation resulted in multidisciplinary involvement and evaluation. In this example, the mass was found to be either an unusual schwannoma that happens to be psammoma body–rich or an unusual psammomatous melanocytic schwannoma that deviates from conventional examples, as a diagnostic consensus was unable to be reached. Schwannomas are an uncommon finding in the foot, and even more uncommon are those that contain psammoma bodies. Although rare, these tumors can be concerning for more systemic, life-altering diseases such as Carney complex, for which our patient refused genetic testing.