Background: Student self-assessment is viewed as an important tool in medical education. We sought to identify the relationship between student academic performance and third-year clinical performance self-assessment. No such study exists in podiatric medical education.
Methods: Third-year podiatric medical students from the classes of 2012 through 2014 completed a self-assessment of their performance for each of five broad clinical podiatric medical domains (Professionalism, Medicine, Radiology, Surgery, and Biomechanics/Orthopedics). The assessment was completed after students finished the first 12 weeks of their third-year clinical rotations (PRE) and a second time at the conclusion of the third year (POST). The mean self-assessment score for PRE and POST surveys for all combined domains was determined for each student. This mean was compared with the student's 3-year cumulative grade point average (GPA). Students' clinical experiences for the year were essentially identical.
Results: No statistically significant correlation was identified between cumulative GPA and the PRE and POST clinical self-assessments or with the change between PRE and POST assessments based on the Pearson correlation test for each class separately or on the pooled data.
Conclusions: Published studies in allopathic medical education have shown that students with lower GPAs tend to rate their clinical performance higher in initial clinical performance self-assessment. Our results show that student academic performance was not correlated with clinical performance self-assessment. These findings may be due to the explicit description of successful clinical competency completion, the orientation students receive before the start of clinical training, and the continuous feedback received from clinical preceptors.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate student learning outcomes in a flipped classroom versus a traditional classroom in a podiatric medical school. To date no published reports in podiatric medical schools have used the flipped classroom for the entirety of a medical school course.
Students from the class of 2017 completed the Emergency Medicine and Trauma course using traditional classroom lectures, and the class of 2018 used a flipped classroom approach. Each class took two assessments that contained 99 identical questions and completed a postcourse evaluation that contained student comments. A multivariate analysis of covariance was conducted to determine whether student performances were significantly affected by the differences in the teaching method. Student evaluation comments were analyzed using textual data analysis to determine the sentiments that students expressed regarding their exposure to the teaching method.
The multivariate analysis of covariance results revealed that students scored slightly lower on assessments during the flipped classroom delivery compared with the traditional classroom delivery, when adjusted for Medical College Admission Test scores and grade point average, but not significantly (P = .4340). Similarly, the sentiment analysis of student comments indicated that the average positive sentiment score for the flipped classroom delivery was higher but was not significant (P = .08914).
The analysis showed there was not a statistically significant change in examination scores based on teaching method. Sentiment analysis revealed that student sentiments were more positive with the flipped classroom group compared with the traditional lecture group, although not statistically significantly.
A recent increase in podiatric medicine fellowships has occurred as the field continues to progress. Research regarding selection criteria from a fellowship director's perspective for potential fellows is lacking. This study aimed to examine objective and subjective selection criteria that directors consider when selecting applicants for the interview and when ranking prospective fellows after the interview.
We electronically surveyed American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons fellowship directors with preselected criteria for granting applicants an interview and for compiling their ranking list after the interview. A Likert scale from 1 (most important) to 5 (least important) was used to prioritize each criterion, an average rating was calculated, and the results were placed in order of importance.
The most important selection criteria for granting an interview were quality of residency program (1.985), a written personal statement of reasons for attending that fellowship (2.063), and publications/presentations produced as a resident (2.267). The most important criteria in completing the ranking order after the interview were assessment of applicant's personality (1.111), interview performance (1.173), and expressed interest in program (1.563).
Knowledge of the selection criteria that fellowship directors seek in applicants can assist those who desire to further their training. The selection criteria that program directors seek differed between being selected for the interview, which combined both objective and subjective criteria, and when compiling their rankings after the interview, which included only subjective criteria. Results show more emphasis on subjective selection criteria when directors select applicants for an interview and when ranking applicants after the interview.
Background: We assessed the differences in podiatric medical students' clinical professionalism objective scores (CPOSs) by comparing a previous nonrubric evaluation tool with a more recently implemented objective-centered rubric evaluation tool. This type of study has never been performed or reported on in the podiatric medical education literature.
Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of 89 third-year podiatric medical students between academic years 2010-2011 and 2011-2012. A Pearson correlation coefficient analysis was performed to compare CPOSs from the students' first (CPOS1) and second (CPOS2) rotations. A correlation analysis was performed comparing students' grade point averages (GPAs) with each of the individual CPOSs to verify the validity of the rubric evaluation tool.
Results: The Pearson correlation coefficients for the relationship between 2012 CPOS1 and CPOS2 and GPA were r = 0.233 (P ≤ .093) and r = 0.290 (P < .035) and for the relationship between 2013 CPOS1 and CPOS2 and GPA were r = 0.525 (P = .001) and r = 0.730 (P < .001).
Conclusions: These findings suggest that the use of a rubric in the evaluation of podiatric medical students' CPOSs is correlated with their GPAs, and CPOS2 demonstrated a higher correlation than CPOS1. We believe that implementation of the rubric evaluation tool has increased the accuracy of the evaluation of podiatric medical students with respect to CPOSs.
In the podiatric medicine profession, there are a variety of manual tasks that require precision and skill beyond what would be usually expected in everyday living. It is the expectation of employers, regulatory bodies, and the public that graduating podiatric physicians sufficiently meet certain minimum competencies for that profession, including those for manual skills. However, teaching and evaluation methods seem to be inconsistent between countries, institutions, and programs. This may be the consequence of uncertainty regarding the safest and most effective methods to do so. A review of available international literature pertaining to psychomotor learning across a range of health professions was undertaken. As a result of this broad review, we present herein the available evidence and make recommendations for the teaching of psychomotor skills in the podiatric medicine profession. Specific aspects considered important include methods of teaching, practice, and feedback.
This study examined the differences between faculty and trained standardized patient (SP) evaluations on student professionalism during a second-year podiatric medicine standardized simulated patient encounter.
Forty-nine second-year podiatric medicine students were evaluated for their professionalism behavior. Eleven SPs performed an assessment in real-time, and one faculty member performed a secondary assessment after observing a videotape of the encounter. Five domains were chosen for evaluation from a validated professionalism assessment tool.
Significant differences were identified in the professionalism domains of “build a relationship” (P = .008), “gather information” (P = .001), and share information (P = .002), where the faculty scored the students higher than the SP for 24.5%, 18.9%, and 26.5% of the cases, respectively. In addition, the faculty scores were higher than the SP scores in all of the “gather information” subdomains; however, the difference in scores was significant only in the “question appropriately” (P = .001) and “listen and clarify” (P = .003) subdomains.
This study showed that professionalism scores for second-year podiatric medical students during a simulated patient encounter varied significantly between faculty and SPs. Further consideration needs to be given to determine the source of these differences.
Attrition from medical school remains a serious cause of concern for the medical education community. Thus, there is a need to improve our ability to select only those candidates who will succeed at medical school from many highly qualified and motivated applicants. This can be achieved, in part, by reducing the reliance on cognitive factors and increasing the use of noncognitive character traits in high-stakes admissions decisions. Herein we describe an analytic rubric that combines research-derived predictors of medical school success to generate a composite score for use in admissions decisions. The analytic rubric as described herein represents a significant step toward evidenced-based admissions that will facilitate a more consistent and transparent qualitative evaluation of medical school applicants beyond their grades and Medical College Admissions Test scores and contribute to a redesigned and improved admissions process.
Although depression and depressive symptoms have been previously explored in various medical student cohorts, there has been a lack of formal investigation among podiatric medical students specifically. The purpose of this study was to identify the prevalence and related characteristics of depression and depressive symptoms in podiatric medical students.
A mixed-methods approach was used. Students at a podiatric medical college were asked to complete the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale Revised survey electronically each year for 4 consecutive years. Focus group sessions were also conducted to further explore topics related to depression and depressive symptoms.
Surveys were completed by 271 of 539 potential respondents (50.3%). A total of 34.7% of respondents screened positive for depression or depressive symptoms, defined as meeting or exceeding the criteria for subthreshold depressive symptoms on the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale Revised. The prevalence was found to be lower in clinical students (third- and fourth-year students) and in students in committed relationships. Themes from the focus group sessions included the following: coping with stress, general health concerns, self-evaluation, action and preparation, and the use of campus resources.
Depression and depressive symptoms were commonly encountered in this podiatric medical student cohort. Future investigations may consider specific treatment and prevention strategies.
We sought to assess the perceptions that podiatric medical students had of the use of simulators after completing a third-year simulation rotation. This type of analysis has not been reported in the podiatric medicine educational literature. Another goal of this study was to influence the podiatric medical community to increase studies that help demonstrate the effectiveness of simulation in the podiatric medical curriculum.
Data from rotation evaluations of 44 students from the 2011-2012 academic year included student responses to 11 quantitative items and textual analysis of the students' written comments. Basic descriptive statistics of student responses to the quantitative items allowed for the analysis of central tendencies and variations. Textual analysis was performed on comments that were coded into themes based on similar properties and characteristics that the comments shared.
The analysis revealed that the simulation sessions were well liked. All of the students who responded to the survey rated the overall simulation rotation as “superior.” Textual analysis of the students' comments showed that students enjoy simulation as an educational tool because it helps enhance their clinical skills while also applying their didactic education to a practical experience. Clear evidence was presented that students want more cases and time to spend in the simulation laboratory to continue increasing their medical skills.
The student perception of simulation is that it is an effective educational tool. Further testing is needed to prove simulation efficacy in a podiatric medical curriculum.
The primary objective of this investigation was to objectify perceived stresses of students enrolled at a US college of podiatric medicine.
Following preliminary pilot data collection and representative student interviews, the Perceived Stress Scale and a newly developed survey consisting of 46 potential stresses were administered to students. Participants were asked to identify up to ten items from the survey that caused them the most stress and to further identify up to three of these ten that they considered to be the most stressful.
A response rate of 71.5% (261 of 365) was observed. Specific results demonstrate that levels of perceived stress in podiatric medical students are higher than those in the general population, as well as some potential trends with respect to specific perceived stresses that change over time.
The results of this investigation provide quantitative evidence of perceived levels of stress and specific stresses of students enrolled at a US college of podiatric medicine. We hope that these findings increase awareness of stress in podiatric medicine, lead to colleges of podiatric medicine taking active steps to improve student stress education, and lead to future investigations of stress and mental health in the field of podiatric medicine.