Background: We performed an adaptation of the system of evaluation of metatarsal protrusion described by Oller in 1994 to study the metatarsal parabola group.
Methods: The system of measurement was applied to the five metatarsals of 169 normal feet (72 feet of women and 97 feet of men) according to the inclusion criteria established.
Results: The mean ± SD metatarsal protrusion angle with respect to the second ray in women was 87.49° ± 5.48° for metatarsal I, 70.00° ± 5.74° for metatarsal III, 63.47° ± 4.17° for metatarsal IV, and 56.38° ± 3.27° for metatarsal V. In men, the values were 85.30° ± 6.75° for metatarsal I, 68.00° ± 6.72° for metatarsal III, 60.56° ± 4.61° for metatarsal IV, and 54.13° ± 3.75° for metatarsal V. The comparative analysis between women and men showed significant differences (P < .05) for all of the values of metatarsal protrusion.
Conclusions: The comparative analysis between women and men indicates a possible difference between the anthropometric values of these variables in humans, suggesting a possible repercussion on the biomechanical patterns by sex. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 99(1): 49–53, 2009)
We performed a bibliographic review of the systems proposed by various researchers to evaluate physiologic metatarsal protrusion. The system of measurement devised by Hardy and Clapham to evaluate the protrusion between the first and second metatarsals was adapted to study the whole metatarsal parabola. We studied the five metatarsals of 52 normal feet. Mean metatarsal protrusion relative to the second metatarsal was +1.21% for the first metatarsal, −3.84% for the third metatarsal, −9.66% for the fourth metatarsal, and −16.91% for the fifth metatarsal. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 96(3): 238–244, 2006)
Hallux valgus (HV) is a progressive foot deformity in which the first metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joint is affected. The relationship between the dome height of the first metatarsal head and the HV deformity has not been studied previously. This study aimed to investigate a possible relation of the dome height of the first metatarsal head with articular alignment and the hallux valgus angle (HVA), which is frequently used to evaluate HV.
A total of 129 feet of 68 patients were included in the study. Anteroposterior digital radiographic images of the foot taken in a weightbearing, standing position were used to assess the HVA, dome height, and shape of the first metatarsal head and the alignment of the MTP joint. The dome height of the first metatarsal head is the vertical distance from the base to the highest point of the articular surface doming. The alignment was categorized into three groups: aligned, deviated, and subluxated. Patients were assigned into three groups based on the HVA: Normal, Mild HV and Moderate HV.
A statistically significant, positive correlation was found between the HVA and the dome height of the first metatarsal head (r = 0.293, P = 0.001 and P < 0.05). The dome height was significantly lower in the patients with a normal HVA than those with a high HVA (P 1 = 0.042, P 2 = 0.039 and P < 0.05, respectively). The dome height of the first metatarsal head was found significantly higher in feet with subluxation, compared to feet aligned and deviated (P 1 = 0.001; P 2 = 0.0089 and P < 0.05, respectively).
Our study results suggest that HV deformity may be related to an increased dome height and the measurement of the dome height of the first metatarsal head might be used to evaluate an anatomic tendency toward HV development.
Distance Between the Malleoli and the Ground
A New Clinical Method to Measure Leg-Length Discrepancy
The aim of this work is to introduce a useful method for the clinical diagnosis of leg-length inequality: distance between the malleoli and the ground (DMG).
A transversal observational study was performed on 17 patients with leg-length discrepancy. Leg-length inequality was determined with different clinical methods: with a tape measure in a supine position from the anterior superior iliac spine (ASIS) to the internal and external malleoli, as the difference between the iliac crests when standing (pelvimeter), and as asymmetry between ASISs (PALpation Meter [PALM]; A&D Medical Products Healthcare, San Jose, California). The Foot Posture Index (FPI) and the navicular drop test were also used. The DMG with Perthes rule (perpendicular to the foot when standing), the distance between the internal malleolus and the ground (DIMG), and the distance between the external malleolus and the ground were designed by the authors.
The DIMG is directly related to the traditional ASIS–external malleolus measurement (P = .003), the FPI (P = .010), and the navicular drop test (P < .001). There are statistically significant differences between measurement of leg-length inequality with a tape measure, in supine decubitus, from the ASIS to the internal malleolus, and from the ASIS to the external malleolus.
This new method (the DMG) is useful for diagnosing leg-length discrepancy and is related to the ASIS–external malleolus measurement. The DIMG is significantly inversely proportional to the degree of pronation according to the FPI. Conversely, determination of leg-length discrepancy with a tape measure from the ASIS to the malleoli cannot be performed interchangeably at the level of the internal or external malleolus.
A talus control foot orthosis (TCFO) combines an inverted rigid foot orthosis (RFO) with a broad upright portion that rises well above the navicular to cover and protect the talonavicular joint. We sought to identify the therapeutic effect of TCFOs in children with flexible flatfoot.
Flexible flatfoot was diagnosed in 40 children when either of the feet had greater than 4° valgus of resting calcaneal stance position (RCSP) angle and one of the radiographic indicators was greater than 30° in anteroposterior talocalcaneal angles, 45° in lateral talocalcaneal angles, and 4° in lateral talometatarsal angles and less than 10° of calcaneal pitch in barefoot radiographs. Of 40 children with flexible flatfoot, 20 were fitted with a pair of RFOs and 20 with TCFOs, randomly. Follow-up clinical and radiographic measurements were completed 12 months later.
All of the radiographic indicators changed toward the corrective direction in both groups. There were significant improvements in calcaneal pitch and RCSP in both groups (P < .05). In the TCFO group, the anteroposterior talocalcaneal angle and the RCSP showed statistically significant improvement compared with the RFO group.
In this study, the TCFO was more effective than the RFO at treating children with flexible flatfoot.
The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between foot deformities by comparing foot radiographs of patients with complaints of foot pain with those of healthy individuals.
The study included 30 patients with pes cavus, 30 patients with pes planus, 30 patients with calcaneal spur, and 30 controls aged 30 to 60 years. All participants underwent measurement of right and left foot length; metatarsophalangeal width; and calcaneal pitch (CA), talohorizontal (TA), talometatarsal (TM), and lateral talocalcaneal (LTC) angles from lateral radiographs.
There were no statistically significant differences between all participants regarding sex, age, weight, and body mass index (P > .05). Among patients with clinically diagnosed pes cavus, the diagnostic rate of CA was 100% in both feet, and 83.3% in the right foot and 96.7% in the left foot according to the TM angle. The diagnostic rates of angular measurements in patients with pes planus were as follows: 20% in the right foot and 30% in the left foot depending on the CA angle, 100% in both feet depending on the TM angle, and 66.7% in the right foot and 46.7% in the left foot depending on the LTC angle. A very strong positive correlation was found between the CA and LTC angles in patients with calcaneal spur and pes planus (P < .001); also, statistically significant positive correlation was found between the CA and TA angles (P < .05). The angular measurements in patients with calcaneal spur were found to be consistent with pes planus with a high rate.
Angular changes caused by deterioration of foot biomechanics lead to various deformities. Pes planus ranks first among these. Therefore, we believe that radiographic angular measurements in patients presenting with foot pain in addition to clinical evaluation would be useful in considering associated deformities and planning treatments.
To date, there is conflicting evidence that high-end “motion control” running shoes can correct and control rearfoot pronation. Many methods have been used to evaluate the efficacy of motion control footwear in reducing hindfoot pronation during gait, including stop-motion photography, three-dimensional camera kinematic analysis, and three-dimensional bone modeling using computed tomography. Until now, there have been no radiographic studies that examined the effect of motion control running shoes on the static posture of the foot. Murley et al devised a reliable system that correlated noninvasive clinical examinations to radiographic values that correspond to foot pronation. The aim of this prospective investigation was to determine whether motion control running shoes are able to produce a significant difference in pronation through a radiographic study, using the angular relationships as described by Murley et al, in two different shoe conditions as compared to the barefoot condition in female subjects.
This prospective study screened 28 female subjects ranging in age from 22 to 27 years on the basis of arch height index. The 24 subjects with a standing arch height index less than 0.370 were invited to participate in the study. Unilateral weightbearing dorsoplantar and lateral foot radiographs were taken in barefoot, neutral shoe, and motion control shoe conditions. Calcaneal inclination angle, calcaneal–first metatarsal (CFMA) angle, talonavicular coverage angle (TNCA), and talus–second metatarsal angle were measured in each condition by two independent observers using the Opal-Ortho PACS software package and then averaged. Angles were compared to barefoot baseline values using paired t tests.
The motion control running shoe produced average decreases of 2.64% in CFMA, 12.62% in TNCA, 5.3% in talus–second metatarsal angle and an average increase of 1.3% in calcaneal inclination angle. Statistically significant (P > .05) improvements in CFMA were noted in both the motion control (P < .000) and neutral shoe conditions (P < .000) when compared to barefoot, whereas TNCA improved only in the motion control shoe condition as compared to barefoot (P = .003).
This investigation found evidence that the particular models of motion control running shoes studied could correct foot pronation in the transverse and sagittal planes in stance. Motion control running shoes improved CFMA and TNCA from the barefoot condition and were more effective in correcting pronation compared with neutral running shoes in this radiographic study simulating static foot posture in stance.
Radiographic Measurements of the Affected and Unaffected Feet in Patients with Unilateral Hallux Limitus
A Case-Control Pilot Study
Background: Controversy exists regarding the structural and functional causes of hallux limitus, including metatarsus primus elevatus, a long first metatarsal, first-ray hypermobility, the shape of the first metatarsal head, and the presence of hallux interphalangeus. Some articles have reported on the radiographic evaluation of these measurements in feet affected by hallux limitus, but no study has directly compared the affected and unaffected feet in patients with unilateral hallux limitus. This case-control pilot study aimed to establish whether any such differences exist.
Methods: Dorsoplantar and lateral weightbearing radiographs of both feet in 30 patients with unilateral hallux limitus were assessed for grade of disease, lateral intermetatarsal angle, metatarsal protrusion distance, plantar gapping at the first metatarsocuneiform joint, metatarsal head shape, and hallux abductus interphalangeus angle. Data analysis was performed using a statistical software program.
Results: Mean radiographic measurements for affected and unaffected feet demonstrated that metatarsus primus elevatus, a short first metatarsal, first-ray hypermobility, a flat metatarsal head shape, and hallux interphalangeus were prevalent in both feet. There was no statistically significant difference between feet for any of the radiographic parameters measured (Mann-Whitney U tests, independent-samples t tests, and Pearson χ2 tests: P > .05).
Conclusions: No significant differences exist in the presence of the structural risk factors examined between affected and unaffected feet in patients with unilateral hallux limitus. The influence of other intrinsic factors, including footedness and family history, should be investigated further.
Closed reduction and percutaneous pinning, open reduction and internal fixation, and primary arthrodesis are procedures used in the surgical treatment of calcaneal fractures. This study presents short-term clinical and radiologic results of patients with calcaneal fractures treated by closed indirect reduction with Endobutton-assisted minimally invasive osteosynthesis.
Twenty-one feet of 18 patients (four women and 14 men) with calcaneal fractures were retrospectively analyzed. Böhler and Gissane angles were measured from the preoperative, postoperative, and latest follow-up lateral radiographs of the feet. American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) scores were used for the 6-month and latest follow-up clinical assessments.
The mean preoperative Böhler angle of 17.1° was corrected to a mean of 20.4° postoperatively. The mean value of this angle measured at the time of latest follow-up was 21.3°. The mean preoperative and postoperative Gissane angles were 116° and 117.8°, respectively. The mean value of this angle measured at the time of latest follow-up was 117.4°. The mean 6-month postoperative AOFAS score was 59.8 points. The mean AOFAS score at the time of latest follow-up (79.1 points) was significantly higher than the mean score 6 months postoperatively (P < .001). Regarding the latest follow-up AOFAS scores, four were poor, four were moderate, ten were good, and three were excellent.
With a low learning curve and satisfactory clinical outcomes, this technique can be used in acute, edematous cases with soft-tissue injuries to avoid calcaneal enlargement, infection, and soft-tissue problems.
This study was performed to determine the factors that influence the clinical outcomes of surgically treated ankle fractures associated with the posterior malleolus (PM).
We evaluated 42 fractures of 42 patients. Posterior malleolus fracture size was calculated using computed tomography. Posterior malleolar fractures with a size less than 10% were left nonfixated. The decision for larger fragments was performed using fluoroscopy following the fixation of other components. If the joint was found to be congruent, the PM was left nonfixated. Otherwise, the PM was reduced and fixated. Clinical outcomes were evaluated based on Weber, Freiburg, and American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society scores. Ankle osteoarthritis was determined according to the Canadian Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society classification. The effect of PM fixation, age, PM fragment size, waiting period before surgery, presence of ankle dislocation, and number of injured malleoli on clinical outcomes were assessed. Statistical significance was set at a value of P < .05.
The mean patients age was 48.5 ± 14.9 years (range, 20–84 years) and the mean follow-up was 23.7 ± 8.6 months (range, 12–56 months). Fixation of the PM was performed solely in 12 patients. Postoperative displacement of the PM and articular step were less than 2 mm in all fractures. Statistically significant worse outcomes were demonstrated based on functional scores in the patients with a PM size greater than or equal to 25% (P = .042, P = .038, and P = .048, respectively) and in patients aged 60 years or older (P = .005, P = .007, and P = .018, respectively). However, there was no significant difference between functional scores and the other factors. Ankle osteoarthritis was observed at a higher rate in patients with PM size greater than or equal to 25% and in patients aged 60 years or older.
Clinical outcomes of the patients are mainly influenced by the patient's age and PM fragment size. However, if the tibiotalar joint is congruent, comparable results can be obtained in PM fixated or nonfixated patients.