We report on the unusual presentation of a schwannoma. Aside from the aberrant dorsolateral anatomical presentation, ultrasonography revealed not only peripheral vascularity but also internal vascularity. Internal vascularity often suggests a malignant process as opposed to a benign one; however, in the presented case, the diagnosis of a benign lesion was confirmed with S100 immunohistochemical staining. In this study, we review the literature on this pathology and present an uncommon presentation of a benign nerve tumor.
Reported here is the case of a 55-year-old woman presenting to a podiatry clinic with a chief complaint of left heel and ankle pain, who ultimately underwent operative excision of an angioleiomyoma adjacent to the tibialis posterior artery at the level of the medial malleolus. Accompanying this case are images from three modalities through which the defining characteristics of an angioleiomyoma can be appreciated. This case advocates for the inclusion of angioleiomyoma in the preoperative differential diagnosis of a mass presenting as a pseudoaneurysm in the lower extremity, particularly among women in the fourth to sixth decades of life.
A 66-year-old man was admitted to a hospital rehabilitation unit for the management of chronic groin pain. Since the groin pain began, he had been unable to bear weight on his right foot. During a podiatric examination, the patient reported sharp pain at the apex of his right hallux. A full podiatric assessment was undertaken to evaluate his vascular, neurologic, and biomechanical status. The patient’s ankle-brachial index was found to be 0.34 in the right lower limb and 0.68 in the left lower limb. After vascular assessment, the patient was diagnosed as having chronic ischemia of the right leg. He underwent left-to-right femoral-to-femoral bypass graft surgery to salvage the right lower leg and foot. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 97(5): 402–404, 2007)
Capillary hemangiomas are benign, vascular lesions of skin and mucous membranes that often occur in infancy and childhood. Capillary hemangiomas are most commonly found in the head and neck region. Capillary hemangiomas that occur in adults and on the lower extremities are uncommon. A clinical case involving surgical treatment of the lesion on an adult foot is presented. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 92(3): 155-157, 2002)
Acroangiodermatitis (AAD), also known as pseudo-Kaposi's sarcoma, is an uncommon benign angioproliferative condition most commonly seen in the lower extremities. This condition often presents as discolored patches that progress to painful ulcerations. The list of vascular conditions associated with this diagnosis is vast. Acroangiodermatitis presents similarly to more aggressive conditions such as Kaposi's sarcoma, making histopathologic examination helpful in its diagnosis. We present two cases of AAD in the setting of chronic venous insufficiency.
Intraosseous epidermoid inclusion cysts are rare benign bone lesions that occur most commonly in the skull and in the distal phalanges of the fingers. Herein we report a case of an intraosseous epidermoid inclusion cyst occurring in the distal phalanx of the left hallux. Only six occurrences of this lesion have been described in the foot. This patient’s presentation, with active drainage (initially appearing as purulent discharge from an acutely tender ingrown hallux nail) and a known inoculation event accompanied by severe peripheral vascular disease, make this case unique. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 100(2): 133–137, 2010)
Angioleiomyomas are benign tumefactions that originate from smooth muscle in vascular structures and are difficult to definitively diagnose preoperatively. Although these lesions are rarely encountered in the foot, the lower extremity is the most common site of occurrence. An angioleiomyoma typically manifests as a small, painful, solitary, mobile lesion. This case report describes a lateral retromalleolar para–Achilles tendon insertional location for a moderately sized immobile solid tumefaction in the subcutaneous tissues. The lesion was nonpainful and progressively enlarged over 5 years. An excisional biopsy was performed, and the nodular lesion was subsequently diagnosed histopathologically as an angioleiomyoma. Owing to the ambiguous nature of the clinical findings, angioleiomyoma should be included in the differential diagnosis of lower-extremity soft-tissue manifestations.
Serratia marcescens is a ubiquitous, facultatively anaerobic, gram-negative bacillus that has been cited to cause infection in immunocompromised populations. In the literature, S marcescens infections of the lower extremity have presented as granulomatous ulceration, abscess, bullous cellulitis, and necrotizing fasciitis. Herein we present a series of three cases of lower-extremity infections in which S marcescens was the sole or a contributing pathogen. We discuss the commonalities of these three cases as well as with those previously cited. All three patients presented with some combination of a similar set of clinical characteristics, including bullae formation, liquefactive necrosis, and black necrotic eschar. All three patients were diabetic and had peripheral vascular disease.
Eccrine poroma is a rare benign adnexal neoplasm originating from a portion of the intraepidermal eccrine sweat gland duct and the acrosyringium. Typically, the lesions are asymptomatic, slow-growing nodules, which may be found in any sweat gland–bearing area. Multiple red lacunae, glomerular vessels, hairpin vessels, flower- and leaf-like vascular patterns, a polymorphic vascular pattern, globule/lacunae–like structures, a frog egg–like appearance, and comedo-like openings have been defined as characteristic dermoscopic patterns of the disease. We report a case of eccrine poroma in an unusual periungual and subungual location mimicking ingrown toenails. The dermoscopic findings of the lesions were compatible with those of eccrine poromas located in areas other than the periungual area. Recurrence was observed after the first excisional biopsy. There was no recurrence 10 months after the second surgical intervention, and near-complete regrowth of the nail plate was achieved. Eccrine poroma should be considered as a differential diagnosis in the presence of slow-growing, erythematous, painful, hemorrhagic papular lesions located in the periungual area in conjunction with a prediagnosis of ingrown toenails and malignant processes.
Pyogenic granulomas are benign vascular tumors characterized histologically by a lobular proliferation of capillaries. We report an unusual presentation of a pyogenic granuloma in an elderly patient with a bleeding red nodule on the plantar surface of the foot. Nodular exophytic plantar foot lesions often present a diagnostic challenge, as the differential diagnosis includes benign and malignant entities ranging from eccrine poroma and pyogenic granuloma to Kaposi's sarcoma and amelanotic melanoma. This case highlights the need for an adequate biopsy technique to confirm the diagnosis and guide management.