Background: To evaluate clinicians' compliance to follow national guidelines for tetanus vaccination prophylaxis in high-risk foot patients. Methods: We retrospectively evaluated 114 consecutive patients between June 2011 and March 2019 who presented with a foot infection resulting from a puncture injury through the emergency department. Eighty-three patients had diabetes mellitus and 31 patients did not have diabetes mellitus. Electronic medical records were used to collect a broad range of study data on patient demographics, previous medical history, previous tetanus immunization history and tetanus status upon presentation to the emergency department (ED), peripheral arterial disease, sensory neuropathy, laboratory values, and clinical / surgical outcomes. Results: 46.5% of the patients who presented to the ED with a puncture wound did not have up-to-date tetanus immunization. Of those patients, 79.2% received a tetanus-containing vaccine booster, 3.8% received intramuscular tetanus immunoglobulins (TIG), 3.8% received both tetanus-containing vaccine booster and TIG, and 20.8% received no form of tetanus prophylaxis. When comparing data between patients with and without diabetes, there were no statistical significant differences in tetanus prophylaxis. Conclusion: Guidelines for tetanus prophylaxis amongst high-risk foot patients in this study center are not followed in all patients. Patients with DM are at high risks of exposure to tetanus, we recommend physicians to take a detailed tetanus immunization history and vaccinate them if tetanus history is unclear.
ObjectiveTo compare pathogens involved in skin and soft tissue infection (SSTI) and pedal osteomyelitis (OM) in patients with and without diabetes with puncture wounds to the foot. MethodsWe evaluated 113 consecutive patients between June 2011 and March 2019 with foot infection (SSTI and OM) from a puncture injury sustained to the foot. Eighty-three patients had diabetes (DM) and 30 did not (NDM). We evaluated the bacterial pathogens in patients with skin and soft tissue infections (SSTI) and pedal osteomyelitis (OM). ResultsPolymicrobial infection were more common in patients with diabetes mellitus (83.1% vs 53.3%, p=.001). The most common pathogen for SSTI and OM in DM was s. aureus (SSTI 50.7%, OM 32.3%), whereas in NDM patients it was Pseudomonas (25%) for SSTI. Anaerobes (9.4%) and fungal (3.1%) infection were uncommon. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was only identified in 5.8% of people with diabetes. ConclusionsThe most common bacterial pathogen in both SSTIs and pedal OM was staphylococcus aureus in patients with DM. Pseudomonas spp., was the most common pathogen in people without diabetes with SSTIs.