Calcaneal pitch has been considered to be an indirect measure of subtalar joint function. The aim of this pilot study was to assess changes in the calcaneal pitch angle during dynamic gait. Sixty female subjects underwent videofluoroscopy to obtain 27 usable gait cycle data. A single-frame, shuttle-advance video recorder was used to identify midstance of the gait cycle. The calcaneal pitch angle was measured during three midstance periods. The study confirms findings from video and forceplate analysis and reintroduces videofluoroscopy as a gait research tool.
Although emerging evidence suggests a causal relationship between arch structure and musculoskeletal injury, few investigations have adequately assessed arch function during gait. In this study, digitized videofluoroscopy was used to evaluate the sagittal plane motion of the calcaneus during gait. Nine female subjects requiring diagnostic foot radiographs underwent videofluoroscopy. The calcaneal inclination angle, arch height ratio, and tarsal index were digitally analyzed for all radiographic images. Calcaneal pitch was correlated to both the arch height ratio and the tarsal index. Repeated measures analysis of variance helped to identify a significant reduction in the mean calcaneal pitch during the midstance and early propulsive periods of gait. These findings suggest that although calcaneal pitch may be used as an indicator of rearfoot position, biomechanical classification of foot types based on radiographs may result in erroneous conclusions concerning foot function.
The aim of this study was to apply the principles of content, criterion, and construct validation to a new questionnaire specifically designed to measure foot-health status. One hundred eleven subjects completed two different questionnaires designed to measure foot health (the new Foot Health Status Questionnaire and the previously validated Foot Function Index) and underwent a clinical examination in order to provide data for a second-order confirmatory factor analysis. Presented herein is a psychometrically evaluated questionnaire that contains 13 items covering foot pain, foot function, footwear, and general foot health. The tool demonstrates a high degree of content, criterion, and construct validity and test-retest reliability.