In 2010, the New York College of Podiatric Medicine general anatomy course was redesigned to emphasize clinical anatomy. Over a 2-year period, United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE)–style items were used in lecture assessments with two cohorts of students (N =200). Items were single-best-answer and extended-matching formats. Psychometric properties of items and assessments were evaluated, and anonymous student post-course surveys were administered.
Mean grades for each assessment were recorded over time and compared between cohorts using analysis of variance. Correlational analyses were used to investigate the relationship between final course grades and lecture examinations. Post-course survey response rates for the cohorts were 71 of 97 (73%) and 81 of 103 (79%).
The USMLE-style items had strong psychometric properties. Point biserial correlations were 0.20 and greater, and the range of students answering the items correctly was 25% to 75%. Examinations were highly reliable, with Kuder-Richardson 20 coefficients of 0.71 to 0.76. Students (>80%) reported that single-best-answer items were easier than extended-matching items. Students (>76%) believed that the items on the quizzes/examinations were similar to those found on USMLE Step 1. Most students (>84%) believed that they would do well on the anatomy section of their boards (American Podiatric Medical Licensing Examination [APMLE] Part I).
Students valued USMLE-style items. These data, coupled with the psychometric data, suggest that USMLE-style items can be successfully incorporated into a basic science course in podiatric medical education. Outcomes from students who recently took the APMLE Part I suggest that incorporation of USMLE-style items into the general anatomy course was a successful measure and prepared them well. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 102(6): 517–528, 2012)
The purpose of this study was to quantify the occurrence of the arcuate artery. The arcuate artery was defined as that artery branching off the dorsalis pedis artery at or below the level of the tarsometatarsal joint, tending laterally across the bases of metatarsals 2 through 4, and supplying dorsal metatarsal arteries 2 through 4. The arcuate artery was present in 16.7% of 72 cadaver feet that were dissected and examined, suggesting that the arcuate artery is not the primary blood supply to dorsal metatarsal arteries 2 through 4 as is commonly described. It was determined that the lateral tarsal artery supplied dorsal metatarsal arteries 2 through 4 more frequently (47.2%) than the arcuate artery. The proximal perforating arteries as well as various combinations of all three sources were also found to contribute complete blood supply to dorsal metatarsal arteries 2 through 4. Therefore, a consistent dorsal arterial network, which differentiates throughout development, better explains the blood supply of the dorsal forefoot than the arcuate artery. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 91(6): 300-305, 2001)
Many cadaver-based anatomy courses and surgical workshops use prosections to help podiatry students and residents learn clinically relevant anatomy. The quality of these prosections is variable and dependent upon the methods used to prepare them. These methods have not been adequately described in the literature, and few studies describe the use of chemicals to prepare prosections of the cadaveric foot and ankle. Recognizing the need for better teaching prosections in podiatric education, we developed a chemical application method with underwater dissection to better preserve anatomic structures of the cadaveric foot and ankle.
We used inexpensive chemicals before, during, and after each step, which ultimately resulted in high-quality prosections that improved identification of anatomic structures relevant to the practice of podiatric medicine.
Careful preservation of clinically important nerves, vessels, muscles, ligaments, and joints was achieved with these prosections.
Although this method required additional preparation time, the resultant prosections have been repeatedly used for several years to facilitate learning among podiatry students and residents, and they have held up well. This method can be used by educators to teach podiatry students throughout their medical training and even into residency. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 103(5): 387–393, 2013)