Background: The effectiveness of different energy levels used in extracorporeal shockwave therapy (ESWT) have been investigated in previous studies, but controversy remains regarding which energy levels should be used in the treatment of plantar fasciitis. The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of different energy levels used in ESWT in the treatment of plantar fasciitis through comparisons of plantar fascia thickness and pressure distribution.
Methods: Between July 2020 and September 2020, a total of 51 patients (71 feet) with plantar fasciitis were randomized into three treatment groups using the sealed envelope method. Group 1 (n = 25) received low energy density (0.09 mJ/mm2 ), Group 2 (n = 25) received medium energy density (0.18 mJ/mm2), and Group 3 (n = 21) received high energy density (0.38 mJ/mm2). All groups received three sessions of ESWT with a frequency of 2,000 shocks/min at one week intervals. The patients were evaluated before and after treatment using a visual analog scale (VAS) for pain, the Foot Function Index (FFI), and plantar fascia thickness measured by ultrasonography, and plantar pressure distribution.
Results: The posttreatment VAS and FFI scores were determined to be statistically significantly lower than the pretreatment values in all three groups (p<0.001). There was no significant difference between the groups in terms of the pre and post treatment values of VAS, FFI scores, plantar fascia thickness and pressure distribution (p>0.05). No statistically significant difference was found between the groups in terms of percentage changes in all the outcome parameters (p>0.05).
Conclusions: The results of the study suggest that neither low, medium, or high levels of ESWT were superior to one another in terms of pain, foot functions, fascia thickness and pressure distribution in the treatment of plantar fasciitis.
Distal tibiofibular syndesmosis contributes to dynamic stability of the ankle joint and thereby affects gait cycle. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the grade of syndesmosis injury on plantar pressure distribution and dynamic parameters of the foot.
Grade of syndesmosis injury was determined by preoperative plain radiographic evaluation, intraoperative hook test, or external rotation stress test under fluoroscopic examination, and two groups were created: group 1, patients with grade III syndesmosis injury (n = 17); and group 2, patients with grade II syndesmosis injury (n = 10). At the last visit, radiologic and clinical assessment using the Foot and Ankle Outcome Score was performed. Dynamic and stabilometric analysis was carried out at least 1 year after surgery.
The mean age of the patients was 48.9 years (range, 17–80 years), and the mean follow-up was 16 months (range, 12–24 months). No statistically significant difference was noted between two groups regarding Foot and Ankle Outcome Score. The comparison of stabilometric and dynamic analysis revealed no significant difference between grade II and grade III injuries (P > .05). However, comparison of the data of patients with grade III syndesmosis injury between injured and healthy feet showed a significant difference for dynamic maximum and mean pressures (P = .035 and P = .49, respectively).
Syndesmosis injury does not affect stance phase but affects the gait cycle by generating increased pressures on the uninjured foot and decreased pressures on the injured foot. With the help of pedobarography, processing suitable orthopedic insoles for the injured foot and interceptive measures for overloading of the normal foot may prevent later consequences of ankle trauma.