There is a long-standing stigma associated with the use of epinephrine in digital nerve blocks (DNBs) over the concern of digital necrosis. We conducted a systematic review to assess the duration of anesthesia, onset of anesthesia, and complications of lidocaine with epinephrine compared with plain lidocaine for DNBs in adults. We searched Medline via Ovid, Cochrane Library, and ClinicalTrials.gov on January 28, 2020. We included randomized controlled trials that examined lidocaine with epinephrine 1:80,000 to 1:1,000,000 (1–12.5 µg/mL) and plain lidocaine for DNBs of fingers or toes in adults. We completed a blinded review of all unique articles, followed by full-text reviews, data extraction, and quality assessment of all eligible trials. Risk of bias was assessed to inform qualitative data analysis. We identified seven studies with a combined 363 adults and 442 DNBs that met the inclusion criteria. All five studies that reported duration of anesthesia established longer duration in the epinephrine-supplemented lidocaine group, with significant increases in three. Two of the three studies that reported the onset of anesthesia demonstrated significant differences. The two studies that reported complications did not have a single case of digital necrosis. In adults, the use of lidocaine with epinephrine 1:80,000 to 1:1,000,000 (1–12.5 µg/mL) for DNB yields a longer duration of anesthetic effect and seems to be as safe as plain lidocaine in healthy adults. Several studies had some concern for bias, and additional studies are warranted.
Background: Clinicians, governmental agencies, patients, and pharmaceutical companies all contribute to the United States' opioid epidemic. These same stakeholders can make meaningful contributions to resolve the epidemic by identifying ineffective habits and encouraging change. The purpose of this study was to determine if postoperative opioid prescribing practice variation exists in foot and ankle surgery. We also aimed to identify if demographic characteristics of podiatric foot and ankle surgeons were associated with their postoperative opioid prescribing practices. Methods: We administered an open, voluntary, anonymous, online questionnaire distributed on the internet via Qualtrics, an online survey platform. The questionnaire consisted of six foot and ankle surgery scenarios followed by a demographics section. We invited Podiatric foot and ankle surgeons practicing in the United States to complete the questionnaire via email from the American Podiatric Medical Association's membership list. Respondents selected the postoperative opioid(s) that they would prescribe at the time of surgery, as well as the dose, frequency, and number of "pills" (dosage units). We developed multiple linear regression models to identify associations between prescriber characteristics and two measures of opioid quantity: dosage units and MME. Results: Eight hundred and sixty podiatric foot and ankle surgeons completed the survey. The median number of dosage units never exceeded 30 regardless of the foot and ankle surgery. Years in practice correlated with reduction in opioid dosage units prescribed at the time of surgery. Conclusions: Postoperative opioid prescribing practice variation exists in foot and ankle surgery. In comparison to the orthopedic community, podiatric foot and ankle surgeons prescribe approximately 25% fewer opioids at the time of surgery than orthopedic foot and ankle surgeons. Further research is warranted to determine if additional education is needed for young surgeons.
Background: Surgery is a common setting for opioid-naive patients to first be exposed to opioids. Understanding the multimodal analgesic-prescribing habits of podiatric surgeons in the United States may be helpful to refining prescribing protocols. The purpose of this benchmark study was to identify whether certain demographic characteristics of podiatric surgeons were associated with their postoperative multimodal analgesic-prescribing practices.
Methods: We administered a scenario-based, voluntary, anonymous, online questionnaire that consisted of patient scenarios with a unique podiatric surgery followed by a demographics section. We developed multiple logistic regression models to identify associations between prescriber characteristics and the odds of supplementing with a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, regional nerve block, and anticonvulsant agent for each scenario. We developed multiple linear regression models to identify the association of multimodal analgesic-prescribing habits and the opioid dosage units prescribed at the time of surgery.
Results: Eight hundred sixty podiatric surgeons completed the survey. Years in practice was a statistically significant variable in multiple scenarios. Compared with those in practice for more than 15 years, podiatric surgeons in practice 5 years or less had increased odds of reporting supplementation with an anticonvulsant agent in scenarios 1 (odds ratio [OR], 2.4; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.11–5.18; P = .03), 3 (OR, 2.97; 95% CI, 1.55–5.68; P = .001), 4 (OR, 2.54; 95% CI, 1.56–4.12; P < .001), and 5 (OR, 2.07; 95% CI, 1.29–3.32; P = .003).
Conclusions: Podiatric surgeons with fewer years in practice had increased odds of supplementing with an anticonvulsant. Approximately one-third of podiatric surgeons reported using some form of a nonopioid analgesic and an opioid in every scenario. The use of multimodal analgesics was associated with a reduction in the number of opioid dosage units prescribed at the time of surgery and may be a reasonable adjunct to current protocols.