The congenital etiology of many malformations of the lower extremities is undisputed. This study uses cryomicrotomy of the knees and legs of midterm fetuses to establish the best anatomical representations of lower extremity parts, as they are developing, in a partially microscopic form. Adequate treatment plans of congenital defects require a knowledge of the normal status of development, and this investigation provides these data in a unique way. A comprehensive review of current therapeutic philosophies is related to morphology, which is discussed in light of the various congenital abnormalities of the knee and leg.
Lupus erythematosus is an enigmatic disease. Its podiatric manifestations are largely cutaneous, but vasculitic involvements may produce complications. The authors review much of the histopathology of lupus erythematosus that is relevant to the podiatric physician and surgeon. Awareness of the serious systemic implications of lupus erythematosus and the internal medications used in treatment is part of the physician's responsibility in understanding the whole patient.