Congenital ball-and-socket ankle deformity is a complex pediatric orthopedic deformity that usually is associated with a short limb, a short fibula, distal tibial dysplasia, rearfoot coalition, and ray deficiency. The author reviews the literature on this orthopedic complex, presents two cases, and discusses the practical clinical management of this syndrome.
Computed tomography is a primary imaging technique for evaluating congenital and developmental anomalies of the foot and ankle. Other imaging modalities have special capabilities, but computed tomography is a fast, safe, and effective method of assessing the anatomy. To demonstrate this point, the authors present and discuss imaging findings of common anomalies of the foot and ankle.