The anterolateral thigh (ALT) flap, which can be applied as a free or pedicled flap, is supplied by musculocutaneous or septocutaneous perforators belonging to the descending branch of the lateral circumflex femoral artery. Because local or regional flap options that can be used for the reconstruction of large tissue losses in the distal third of the tibia and foot are limited, ALT and other free flaps are frequently used when needed. The aim of this report is to present our experience with and clinical results of free ALT flaps in a tertiary health-care institution. Between June of 2017 and April of 2020, lower extremity reconstruction with free ALT flaps was performed in seven patients. In the preoperative period, dominant perforators were determined in each patient by Doppler ultrasonography, and surgery was planned considering the size and localization of the defect. All the patients were men, with an average age of 41.7 years. Three patients were operated on for implant exposition on the distal-medial third of the tibia after fracture repair, one patient for posttraumatic calcaneal deformity with osteomyelitis, and two patients because of localized posttraumatic tissue loss in the anterior aspect of the tibia and one patient in the dorsum of the foot. Secondary recovery was achieved in two patients and localized linear necrosis was observed at the flap suture line. No infection was observed in the donor or recipient site. In all patients, the donor site was closed primarily and no wound healing problem was encountered. This is one of the primary reconstruction options for the free ALT flap, especially in cases of large tissue losses in which local and/or regional flap alternatives are insufficient.
The aim of the present study was to contribute new and updated information to the literature by comparing the clinical and radiologic results of arthroscopic microfracture, platelet-rich plasma (PRP) after arthroscopic microfracture, and BST-Cargel scaffold application after arthroscopic microfracture in the treatment of talar osteochondral lesions.
Sixty-two talar osteochondral lesion patients (31 women and 31 men) who underwent ankle arthroscopy in two different centers were randomized into three groups. The first group consisted of patients who underwent only arthroscopic microfracture (MF) (n = 22); the second group consisted of patients who underwent the PRP procedure after arthroscopic MF (PRP; n = 19); and the third group consisted of patients who underwent the BST-Cargel procedure after arthroscopic MF was (BST-Cargel; n = 21). The talar osteochondral lesions in the three groups were classified according to magnetic resonance and arthroscopic images. American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society, Foot and Ankle Ability Measurement (overall pain, 15-minute walking, running function), and visual analog scale scores were evaluated preoperatively and postoperatively, and postoperative return time to sports activities was performed.
Compared to the preoperative score, postoperative American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society score increased 48.80 ± 9.60 in the BST-Cargel group, whereas there was an increase of 46.68 ± 3.65 in the PRP group and 29.63 ± 3.69 in the MF group, which were statistically significant (P < .05).There was a statistically significant postoperative change in the visual analog scale scores of the patients in all three groups compared to the preoperative scores (P < .05). At the end of the follow-up, the Foot and Ankle Ability Measurement overall pain, 15-minute walking, and running function results of all three groups increased significantly postoperatively compared to the preoperative values (P < .005).
BST-Cargel application with microfracture is a method that can be applied easily and safely with arthroscopy to lesions larger than 1.5 cm2 regardless of the size of the cartilage defect, and it has been found to be superior to the other two methods in terms of pain, functional score, radiologic recovery, and return to sports activities.
Background: Ideal suture technique and type in tendon repair are remain unclear. This biomechanical study aimed to assess the biomechanical characteristics of three techniques, modified Kessler (mKE), modified Krackow (mKR), and modified tension Bunnell (mtBU), in sheep Achilles’ tendon tear repair using three suture types, polypropylene, polyester, and ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) sutures, which are also compared.
Methods: Sixty-three Achilles’ tendons harvested from sheep were transversely hacked as a replacement for rupture in a standardized measure and repaired using mKE, mKR, and mtBU techniques with No. 2 polypropylene, polyester, and UHMWPE sutures. Biomechanical parameters, such as Young’s modulus, ultimate strength, and strength to the 5-mm gap were recorded for statistical analysis.
Results: The mtBU technique with UHMWPE use resulted in increased ultimate strength, strenght to 5-mm gap, Young’s modulus, and quantity of specimens with low clinical failure modes compared to other techniques with other suture materials. Furthermore, mtBU has the lowest thickness at the repair side of the tendons. This approach showed tendon failure during maximal traction testing, whereas the mKE and mKR had polyethylene and polyester suture failures.
Conclusions: The UHMWPE suture was significantly superior to the other sutures in each suture techniques in terms of strength and durability. The mtBU technique using UHMWPE suture showed better biomechanical results, implying that this repair might be more appropriate to obtain early mobilization after tendon ruptures.